Baking Basics

Baking
Basics

Business Tips

Business
Tips

Baking Glossary

Baking
Glossary

Glossary

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Q – S


QUART
Measure of liquid capacity equal to one fourth of a gallon, two pints, 32 fluid ounces or 0.946 litres.
 
RACK COOLER
A product cooler that is tray tiered (one above another) in a design that allows the baked product to decrease in temperature (cool) sufficiently for packaging.
 
RACK OVEN
A baking chamber equipped with a removable rack that allows loading and unloading of the bakery product outside the baking chamber. The rack rotates in the oven during the baking process.
 
RAGGED CRUMB
When bread is made correctly, fermented properly and baked perfectly, it can be sliced cleanly. Most complaints about poor cutting qualities can be traced to the use of blades that are out of condition. These drag or rag the crumb, causing the slices to appear untidy and uneven.
 
RATIO
The quantity of em material in relation to another. For example, 2:1 means two parts of one material for every one part of the second.
 
RECIPROCATING SLICER
Bread slicing equipment which has fixed slicing blades in a frame that travels in an up and down motion. Blades cannot be adjusted for various slice thickness.
 
RECOVERY TIME
The time that is allowed to elapse between each of the main dough handling operations in bread making to enable yeast to partially fill the dough with gas. The gluten relaxes during this time, enabling the piece of dough to be manipulated and moulded easily.
 
REDUCING AGENT
With reference to the chemistry of flour and dough, a chemical substance that breaks (cleaves) the disulphide bonds in flour proteins, resulting in a more extensible, pliable dough (when not used in excess). Examples: L-cysteine, sodium metabisulphite.
 
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
The ratio between the amount of water vapour actually in the air at a given temperature and pressure, and the greatest amount of water vapour the air could hold at that same temperature and pressure expressed as a percentage, or in terms of wet bulb vs. dry bulb temperature in the atmosphere in the cabinet. Relative humidity in proofing cabinets should be high to prevent crusting of dough pieces through surface evaporation.

RENDERED FATS
Those converted or melted to oil by direct heat or by steam, clarified by filtration and allowed to set.
 
RESIDUAL SUGARS
In baking, this refers to the sugars which remain in the bakery food after the baking process is completed. Residual sugars add to the sweetness, texture and colour properties of the finished loaf.
 
RESPONSE
Reaction of dough to a known and specific stimulus, substance or set of conditions, usually determined by baking it in comparison with a control.
 
REST PERIOD
In the baking industry this term refers to the time given the dough to recover after mechanical or physical handling. (See Recovery Time)
 
RETARDED DOUGH
A dough, usually a sweet yeast dough, that is made up in its finished form, placed on pans and then put into a refrigerator to retard fermentation until such time as it is needed. It is then taken from the refrigerator, warmed to room temperature, proofed .and baked. Also, may be retarded in bulk form ( 47 kilogram pieces) until needed, then divided, shaped, proofed and baked.
 
RETARDED FERMENTATION
Retarding yeast action by mixing doughs at lower temperatures than usual. This term also used for doughs which have been fermented and then refrigerated, either in bulk or after having been made up into finished form. (See Retarded Dough)
 
RETARDER
Bakers’ term for refrigerator, the reason being that the low temperature (O-3°e) will retard (slow down) yeast activity in doughs. A room for storing retarded doughs.
 
RETROGRADATION
The crystallisation of starch during storage of products containing gelatinised starch. The retrogradation of amylopectin in bread is believed to be involved in staling or firming of bread during storage.
 
REVOLVING OR RACK OVEN
The type in which the shelves or trays on a trolley revolve around a horizontal axis.
 
RICH DOUGH
One that contains more than the average of such enriching ingredients as shortening, eggs and sugar.
 
RIPE DOUGH (DEVELOPED DOUGH)
Term for a dough ready for scaling, having received a period of fermentation sufficiently protracted and/or mechanical development sufficient to enable it to reach its optimum condition for processing.
 
RIPENING (DOUGH)
The development, during fermentation, of proper physical and chemical properties of dough required for bread making.
 
ROLL-IN MARGARINE
Specially processed margarine for applying between layers of sheeted dough for laminating in such products as croissants and Danish pastry. Imparts a flaky character to product.
 
ROPE
A term applied in the baking industry to the development of long, stringy, viscous threads in baked products caused by bacteria of the Bacillus mesentericus group.
 
ROPE INHIBITORS
Compounds which, when added to bakery foods, retard the development of rope.
 
ROTARY OVEN
The oven having a round hearth that revolves on a horizontal plane around a vertical axle at the centre.
 
ROUNDER
A machine so constructed that by a rotary motion the dough after scaling is smoothed and rounded into a somewhat spherical shape.
 
ROUNDING
Shaping of dough pieces into balls to seal, to give consistently round shapes for easier handling and to prevent bleeding and escape of gas.
 
ROUNDTOP BREAD (OPEN TOP BREAD)
A loaf of bread baked without a lid on the pan, resulting in a rounded top crust.
 
SANDING
A term used for the methods of applying a layer of sugar crystals to baked goods, such as biscuits, pastries, etc.
 
SCALING
1. A term used in the baking industry referring to the process of measuring or dividing a large unit, such as a dough, into smaller portions, each portion to produce one baked unit. 2. Dividing batter or dough according to the unit weight.
 
SCALING LOSS
The difference between the actual yield from a batch of dough before fermentation and what the yield should have been, according to total batch weight.
 
SCRAP
The technical term used for dough or product which is left after make-up of completed units. This scrap product is worked (incorporated) into later batches to avoid waste, This is done in such a way that it is completely incorporated and has no adverse effect on the quality of the bakery food.
 
SCRATCH/MIX
One of the two primary types of instate and retail bakery operations. Baked goods are made from individually weighed ingredients (scratch) or premixes containing all necessary ingredients except for yeast and liquids.
 
SCREENS
Fine wire mesh, rectangular screens on which yeast-raised doughnuts etc. are proofed. Proofed pieces are placed in the fryer on the screens.
 
SEAM
In bread, it is the end of the sheeted dough piece which remains exposed after moulding. The seam extends the entire length of the load and should be placed on the bottom side when dough is placed in pan. A tight seam is desired to eliminate any chance of opening or bursting during baking.