A – D
ACTIVE DRY YEAST
Active dry yeast is produced by drying specially prepared compressed yeast under carefully controlled conditions designed to preserve yeast activity. Has moisture content of 6 to 8%. For best results, this yeast should be rehydrated with water at 38 to 40°C for 15 minutes before use.
A fermented bakery food, roughly in the shape of a ring doughnut. Prepared according to a relatively lean formula. Characterised by placing in boiling water for 30 seconds to 2 minutes prior to baking.
A double boiler or one vessel containing hot or warm water into which another, the smaller vessel is placed.
Amount of moisture and volatile material removed from a product during baking.
These are in-store supermarket bakeries which use prepared frozen doughs. They have only to “bakeoff” the product after defrosting and proofing for yeast products and defrosting of chemically leavened products.
A group of thirteen. An extra loaf of each dozen was supplied in olden times to ensure that the correct weight of bread was delivered. Attributed to Henry VIII of England, who decreed beheading for bakers whose dozen rolls did not reach a fixed weight. Fearful bakers began giving thirteen rolls to the dozen in order to be safe.
Calculated from the time the sponge or straight dough is mixed until the dough is delivered for make-up.
Measures the weight of individual formal ingredients as a percentage of total flour weight. The total weight of flour is 100%. Thus, the sum of all ingredient percentages is always more than 100%.
A culture of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under specially controlled conditions or a wort made from molasses and inorganic yeas substrates. Can be supplied in pressed cake form (Pats) or crumbled particles and in dried forms.
The floor of the oven’s baking chamber.
A dry mixture of bicarbonate of soda and one or more acid substances compounded to generate a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas under ordinary conditions of baking. The neutralised residues in the baked goods are not injurious to health or otherwise objectionable.
BAKING SHEETS (PANS)
Aluminium, steel or iron trays on which confectionery is baked. They are usually turned up on all four edges.
A given quantity of batter or dough, the weight of which is determined either by the equipment size or the amount needed to produce the desired quantity of finished product.
A thin mixture of pouring consistency, composed of flour, water or milk, and other ingredients as used for making cakes, pancakes, biscuits, waffles, etc.
BATTER SPONGE (LIQUID SPONGE PREFERMENT)
Very soft palpable dough or ferment is used in some processes of bread making. The ratio of water to flour is 1.1:1 or greater.
To whip air into a liquid mass such as eggs, heavy cream, or gelatine solution to the desired lightness.
A mixer arm inside the bowl of mixing equipment which blends and/or aerates the batter. May be of several configurations, such as a flat paddle or a wire beater.
A compartment in which goods are rapidly reduced in temperature by submitting them to a strong current (2.5 to 4.0 metres per second) of very cold air, usually about minus 34°C.
A mixture of several ingredients or several grades of one ingredient.
1. A term used in the milling industry refers to mixing two or more wheats or flours together to produce flour with certain desired characteristics. 2. Themethod or order in which the ingredients are incorporated in either a batter or dough. 3. Combining or mixing so as to render
An icing is made by boiling sugar and water to thread stage 114.5°C then slowly adding it to beaten egg whites with additional beating.
Italian meringue. Meringue is produced by boiling sugar with water to the hardball stage 121°C then pouring this over well-beaten egg whites.
A spatula or flexible dull-edged knife is used to scrape batter or dough from bowl sides.
Deviations from standards of perfection; are used to determine factors in the process of bread production which causes deficiencies.
A wide group of mixtures and compounds may act to improve bread quality.
The more or less rough portion of the crust formed during oven spring. It may be on one or both sides of the loaf.
BREAKDOWN (OF FATS)
A general term describing the onset or progress of undesirable physical change or chemical change in a fat or oil, also the decomposition of fat. “Breakdown” of frying fats is indicated by excessive darkening, formation of free fatty acids or peroxides, polymerisation, gumming and foaming. Undesirable flavours and odours often accompany the chemical changes involved in the breakdown.
Refers to an arbitrary scale for the direct conversion of specific gravity of sugar solutions into the concentration of the sugar. This concentration is given in degrees Brix.
The chemical reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, in the presence of heat, results in dark, caramel-like compounds. This type of reaction is mainly responsible for crust colour development in bread and it contributes to the flavour of the crust. Sometimes referred to as the “Maillard” reaction.
A term used to describe a large mass of fermenting sponge or dough.
A product, other than the main product, resulting from a manufacturing process. For example breadcrumbs and certain types of toast, etc. are by-products of the main product of the baking industry, bread.
Deviations from the standards of perfection for the particular type of cake.
Device for slicing sheet or layer cakes horizontally to produce a top and bottom slab or layer, usually for placing filling between the slabs.
The production of caramel. The reason for crust colour. The heat of the oven causes some of the sugar contained in bread and cakes to caramelise on the product surface.
Doughs which are mixed to a lower than normal temperature for a particular bakery food, either by design or by accident. The term usually indicates dough which requires longer than normal fermentation.
Spots in the oven where the temperature is less than the average temperature of the oven chamber.
A shortening is prepared by blending animal and vegetable fats or oils.
CHORLEYWOOD BREAD PROCESS (CBP)
The bread-making process was developed by the Flour Milling and Baking Research Association, Chorleywood, England, which uses high-speed mixing for optimum development of the dough. One of a number of bread-making processes that use the mechanical dough development principle rather than fermentation for proper conditioning of dough.
Production of gas (carbon dioxide) in a batter or dough system through chemical reactions. Usually the reaction of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with one or more acids, the most common being monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP), and glucono delta lactone (GDL).
Also called baker’s pat yeast and consists of a pressed cake (70% moisture) of yeast cells.
1. A process in which the solid material is made more predominant by the removal of such materials as water. 2. In prepared mixes, a blend of more minute ingredients for use in a particular bakery food.
CONDITIONING (OF WHEAT) (TEMPERING)
Making the wheat ready for milling. After washing and cleaning, the berries must be brought to the most suitable condition of moistness. If too dry, bran specks will be produced during the milling and may discolour flour. If too wet, the mill sifters become clogged with doughy flour. Wheats are usually conditioned to a moisture content of 15 to 16%. Process requires 12 to 36 hours for complete penetration of the moisture into the berry.
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
Method for packaging of foods to limit microbial (mould) growth through reducing or eliminating oxygen in the package by injecting an inert gas, such as nitrogen, into the package.
Relation to bread-making refers to a method, such as the sponge and dough fermentation process, which has been in use for many years, as opposed to newer production processes, such as continuous mix (CBP and ADD) Chorleywood Bread process and activated dough development.
Conveyorised coolers are usually suspended from the ceiling, leaving space underneath for the installation of other equipment. These coolers are equipped with a fan system which draws in low-velocity air at the discharge end and moves it past the loaves before exhausting the warmed air at the top or entry end.
The heart or the centre. Cores in cake or bread, however, are coarse-textured portions of the crumb or heavy uncooked layers or seams which are detrimental to the quality of the article.
Emulsifiers or other additives retard crumb firming, thereby extending the apparent freshness of bakery products. Crumb softeners generally do not produce softer fresh bread. Instead, they retard staling (the firming process).
Optimum dough condition obtained from proper mixing, fermentation, and ingredients, resulting in bread of maximum volume and other quality factors.
A dough mixer is used to develop the dough to its optimum physical state for bread making.
Interaction among the various components of flour to produce a dough of good baking quality. Mixing development refers to the conditioning of the gluten during the mixing process. Fermentation development refers to achieving the proper conditioning of protein, starch, and other fractions of flour during fermentation.
DIRECT FIRED OVEN
Oven in which the heat source is within the baking chamber, and where products of combustion may come into contact with the product being baked.
A machine which separates large masses of dough into smaller weight units. It generally consists of a hopper continuously charged with dough, feeding by gravity into pockets, or vacuum cylinders regulated to deliver constant volumes of dough for further processing. This process is known as scaling.
This piece of equipment divides and rounds the dough in one action. Sometimes referred to as a roll machine or press.
DOCKING (BREAD, PIZZA)
The action of punching holes in or cutting bread dough before baking to prevent splitting or capping, and, to control the expansion of the bread during baking without rupturing the crust. In pizza crusts, the action of cutting the,dough after sheeting and before adding toppings to prevent blistering.
DODBLE ACTING BAKING POWDER
Baking powder which contains both a fast acting and a slow acting acid. Provides leavening in the batter to produce thickening and aeration during mixing and to further release gas during baking, producing the final rise or leavening. In RSA double acting baking powder is used mainly for domestic purposes.
DOUBLE LAP OVEN
A travelling tray oven in which the trays travel back and forth on an endless chain twice during baking. The main advantage of the double lap oven is the use of head room where floor space is limited.
An ambiguous term which sometimes refers to a yeast food and sometimes refers to an actual dough improver. An ingredient added to the yeast-raised type dough to improve the processing characteristics and/or the quality of the finished product.
The developing of the gluten matrix or the conditioning of the dough by mechanical mixing to obtain the desired quality.
An agitator (mixing arm) for a vertical mixer resembling a fish hook in shape. Used to mix bread or sweet doughs.