Baking Basics

Baking
Basics

Business Tips

Business
Tips

Baking Glossary

Baking
Glossary

Glossary

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I – L


IMMATURE DOUGH (YOUNG DOUGH)
Dough without sufficient fermentation. Will feel somewhat sticky and will produce bread deficient in volume and flavour, with an irregular texture, and with a dark, reddish-brown crust.
 
IMPINGEMENT OVEN
A recirculating heat oven using externally located burners. The heated air is brought into the baking chamber by means of fans and air ducts and is forced on the product through slotted tubes laid out in patterns. These slotted tubes form well defined perpendicular air currents through which the baking product passes as it travels through the baking chamber on a conveyor.
 
IMPROVING AGENT
Any substance that is added to flour or to dough or batter to improve its performance during processing and to improve the quality of the bakery food.
 
INFRA-RED OVEN
An oven which uses energy in the infra-red frequency range. Such energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated without heating the surrounding air.
 
INSTANT DRY YEAST
Special strains of yeast extruded to small particles and dried under special conditions in a fluidised bed drier to a moisture content of 4-6%. The product is very unstable and needs to be packed under a vacuum or an inert gas such as nitrogen in order to protect its activity during storage. Due to its small particle size, it rehydrates easily and it must therefore be added directly to the other dry bakery ingredients.
 
INTERMEDIATE PROOF (OVERHEAD)
The stage in the bread-making process where the dough is allowed to rest (relax) for a short period of time between the dividing/rounding step and moulding step. Also referred to as overhead proof.
 
INTERMEDIATE PROOFER (OVERHEAD PROOFER)
Equipment in which rounded pieces of dough are placed in travelling cups for relaxation between dividing and sheeting. Sometimes called overhead proofer because the equipment is usually placed above the equipment and near the ceiling. Time in the proofer ranges from 5 to 12 minutes.
 
KNEAD
To work or punch together as when making or knocking back a piece of dough. Developing a dough by vigorous manipulation.
 
KNEADER
A machine capable of mixing and “developing” a dough.
 
KNOCK-BACK
The operation that occurs midway through the period of bulk fermentation of a dough consisting of kneading, turning, folding, punching, etc., by which most of the gas is expelled, and fermentation is rejuvenated. The knocking back of a dough not only invigorates the yeast but improves the texture of the bread.
 
KNOCKDOWN
To expel the gas from bread doughs by “punching” with the hands. Manual degassing of fermented doughs.
 
LEAN DOUGH
A dough that contains little or no sugar, milk and shortening.
 
LEATHERY CRUST
The crust which is not crisp and brittle, but tough and rubbery. This may be caused by baking in an excessively humid oven or by storing in a non-permeable package (moisture in crumb migrates to the crust).
 
LEAVENING
The process of producing gas in a dough or batter. This may be done by micro-organisms (yeast) or through the action of chemical agents. These gases then expand during baking, causing the dough or batter to expand (rise).
 
LEAVENING AGENTS
1. Substances which react with each other to produce gases before or during the baking process. 2. Materials which, through biological activity, produce gases during fermentation (yeast).
 
LIQUID MEASURE
Measuring a liquid by volume rather than by weight.
 
LIQUID SPONGE OR BREW SYSTEM (PREFERMENT)
Dough system in which primary sponge fermentation is carried out in a liquid (fluid) medium. Ratio of water to flour is 1.1:1 or greater.