Baking Basics


Business Tips


Baking Glossary



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The biscuit dough is compressed into carved impressions or moulds on a circular drum and withdrawn by suction against a canvas belt. The biscuits are thus embossed with the patterns of the moulds.
A substance added to increase the ease of blending fat-soluble with water-soluble ingredients in making food products. This surface-active substance is used to reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil. In baking applications, an emulsifier is often used to hold together the fat-soluble phase and the water-soluble phase. Examples of types of molecules that are surface-active are mono and diglycerides and polyglycerol esters.
A term used in the baking industry to describe the loss in weight of the dough during the fermentation period. It is usually expressed in percent. The losses are the result of the conversion by yeast of some of the flour solids arid sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol.
The last operation before bread, buns or other yeast-raised doughs are placed in the oven to bake. During this period the dough is once more leavened with gas by the action of yeast, converting sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Unless enough sugar is present, final proof may be insufficient for good volume production.
Refers to the actual time, generally expressed in minutes, between the moment the dough is removed from the mixer until it is transferred to the divider or depositor. Normally the dough is allowed to ferment in bulk during this time.
A term used to express the proper proportion of ingredients in cake or bread formula – a measure to keep the cake or bread in balance to produce the desired product. Baked goods possess tenderising and toughening agents which must be used in proper percentage. (All proportions are based on flour as 100 percent.)
After a loaf or bun has been shaped it is allowed to rest for a time during which yeast action again fills the dough cells with gas, causing them to expand. If allowed to remain undisturbed a point could be reached when the maximum volume is obtained after which the gas leaks away and the piece of dough collapses. Just prior to this point the dough is said to have reached full proof. Example: the greatest volume obtainable without any collapsing occurring during baking.
A shortening is produced for use in high ratio cakes through the inclusion of emulsifiers such as polysorbate 60, glyceryl monostearate and monoglycerides.
A popular term for mechanical mixers, such as the horizontal and vertical mixers (mixing arms on a horizontal or vertical axis). However, in the 1970s and early 1980s, new styles of mixers entered the market, which used much higher speeds (2 to 10 or more times the r.p.m.s of other mechanical mixers). Today, high-speed mixers having a much higher r.p.m. are available.
A container above the depositing machine to hold the dough or batter until the time of depositing. Also, container above any equipment to hold material until ready for depositing. Example: flour hopper above dough mixer.
Used for mixing batters or doughs, the arms are horizontal and revolve in a trough-like container. Owing to the danger of such machines they are so constructed that they cannot be operated until the lid or cover of the trough is moved into position to enclose the mixture and the beaters.