Fermented Dough Systems


Between any form of "machining", the dough must be allowed to relax. This step allows the yeast to produce gas and for the gluten structure to relax. This produces a better formed dough piece and minimises tearing of the dough surface during moulding.

No, all that will happen is that the amount of humidity will decrease, the dough will develop a tough skin on the surface, and if hot enough, the sides of the dough will start to adhere to the tin, all resulting in a sub-standard baked loaf.

Under ideal conditions, flour can be stored for up to six months. Ideal conditions are defined as cool, up to a maximum of 26°C, dark, low humidity, off the floor and away from walls and with good air flow away from chemicals emitting strong odours.

Bakers compressed yeast should not be stored for longer than two weeks in a temperature range not lower than 2°C and higher than 5°C. Compressed yeast should never be frozen.

Usually bakers use instant dry yeast (I.D.Y.) which requires no hydration prior to mixing and can be added directly to the flour. The normal dosage rate is usually ⅓ of the compressed yeast amount. I.D.Y. is vacuum packed and has a two year shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Once opened the I.D.Y. must be stored in a sealed container under refrigeration.

By gently stretching a small piece of dough between your fingers. If the dough stretches without tearing to produce a paper thin film, the dough is sufficiently developed.

All you need to add to the Supreme prepared mixes to make a basic fermented dough is yeast and water. Each prepared mix is a finely balanced formula and is matched perfectly to the flour to produce consistently superior baked products.

Steam is only used in the oven chamber when a product of a "crispy" nature is required. Soft rolls do not require steam as they are baked at a higher temperature for a shorter period of time and require a soft crust texture.

As all ovens are different, it is wiser to bake by time and not temperature. A soft roll's baking time should be between 6 and 8 minutes.


The dough is probably over mixed or over worked. The scones should also be egg washed and rested for 30 minutes before baking.

The temperature of the frying oil is too low; the temperature of the oil needs to be at least 170°C.

Fondant must be melted in a double boiler and never over direct heat, as this could burn the fondant and cause it to crystallise.

The oven temperature could be too low, there could be excessive sugar, fat or baking powder in the formulation or the batter could be too slack.

This can be caused by excessive sugar in the formulation, or the sugar may be too coarse.

It is probably over baked - ensure that you bake it for 8 to 10 minutes only. In addition, the batter could be too stiff, or the Swiss roll may have been left too long before rolling.

Under baking is usually the problem. Other areas to consider are that the sugar and/or moisture content could be too high. Also ensure that the oven door is not opened during the baking process, until the cake structure has "set".

This is flour treated with chlorine gas to reduce the pH of the flour to approximately 5. High-ratio flour is used to make sponge type products requiring high sugar and liquid contents, usually where the amount of sugar exceeds the weight of the flour.

Laminated Dough Systems

Steam forms between the layers of dough and pastry fat as the fat melts in the oven. This forces the dough layers apart.

When rolling the pastry, whichever is softer will be rolled thinner than the other component, which will affect the results

During resting, gluten relaxes and become elastic again, making rolling easier and preventing the pastry from shrinking and becoming misshapen during baking.

After the intensive folding and rolling process, the gluten structure is strengthened and of an elastic nature. Resting the dough will reduce the amount of shrinkage in the oven.