• Ageing
    Natural improvement of flour by storage.
  • Agitator
    Deep box, containing worm conveyor to bring flour and gas in contact in treatment process.
  • Airlock
    A machine for introducing stocks into a pneumatic conveying line.
  • Alsop Process
    Method of treating flour with nitrogen peroxide, produced by passage of air through an electric arc.
  • Apex Separator
    A wheat cleaning machine using a travelling continuous mesh.
  • Ash Content
    Mineral content of flour or wheatfeed.
  • Aspirator
    Wheat cleaning machine using controlled air currents.
  • Atomiser
    Machine for adding water to grain in finely divided spray.
  • Attrition
    Dust released by rubbing together of stocks during conveying.
  • Automatic Feed Controls
    Self-acting devices to regulate the flow of stocks to various machines.
  • Belt Conveyor
    Endless band used for conveying grain or products in continuous stream.
  • Belt Hoist
    A sack hoist with a slack belt which is brought into gear by a tightening pulley or lever.
  • Bleaching
    Artificial whitening of flour by gas or powders.
  • Blending
    Mixing together of wheats or flours in controlled proportions.
  • Bran Duster
    Machine for removing traces of flour adhering to bran skins.
  • Bran Flattening Rolls
    Heavy duty rolls used to flatten and thus enlarge bran flakes.
  • Brush Machine
    A wheat cleaning machine incorporating either two brushes or one brush and a fixed screen.
  • Bulk Delivery
    Delivery of flour in specially designed containers instead of bags.
  • Bulk Storage
    Storage of flour or wheatfeed in bins instead of bags.
  • Centrifugal
    Flour dressing machine with beaters revolving inside a polygonal reel.
  • Colour Grade
    Grade figure as determined on flour colour grading machine.
  • Compensating Weight
    Part of automatic weigher used for adjustment to obtain correct balance.
  • Conditioner
    Machine in which grain is treated with water and heat for mellowing purposes.
  • Conditioning
    The treatment of wheat to bring it into optimum milling condition.
  • Conveying
    Movement of stocks horizontally or vertically.
  • Conveyors
    Endless bands, chains or links or continuous screws used for movement of stocks.
  • Cooler
    A self-contained unit for cooling pellets/cubes.
  • Cubic Capacity
    Cubic feet of space occupied by one quarter of grain.
  • Cut off
    The separation or division of a dressing machine or purifier.
  • Cyclone
    Device for separating flour or stock from moving air.
  • Cyclo-Pneumatic Separator
    Air-belt aspirator usually used for cleaning wheat.
  • Cylinders
    Slow speed, or Trieur high capacity, used for removing cockle, oats and barley from grain.
  • Dampers
    Machines for adding water to grain in controlled amounts.
  • Damping
    Addition of water as part of conditioning process.
  • Decibel (dB)
    A unit measuring the level of noise.
  • Decorticating
    The process of de-husking grain without splitting the interior.
  • Detacher
    Machine for breaking up flakes of stock produced on the reduction rolls.
  • Diagonal Rolls
    Roller mills with rolls set in frame diagonally at 45 degs. as opposed to vertically or horizontally.
  • Diagram
    Usually applied to flow sheet.
  • Differential
    Ratio of speed of fast to slow rolls.
  • Diffuser
    Machine incorporated in pneumatic elevation system at base of vertical pipes.
  • Disc Separator
    Machine for removing cockle or oats and barley from grain.
  • Disrupter
    Machine for disintegrating endosperm flakes on head reductions.
  • Divide Making
    The grouping of flours of various qualities for production of different grades.
  • Divider
    Machine for sub-dividing a single stream of stock into several smaller streams of equal proportions.
  • Dress (1)
    Pattern of furrows on a millstone.
  • Dress (2)
    Nature of clothing of dressing machine.
  • Driving Irons
    A cross bar on the spindle to drive the stones.
  • Dry Cleaning
    Cleaning of grain without application of water.
  • Drying
    Removal of moisture from grain, usually to facilitate storage.
  • Dry Stoner
    Machine, with fluidised bed, for removing stones from dry wheat.
  • Duo-Aspirator
    A closed circuit aspirator for wheat cleaning.
  • Dunst
    Usually applied to stock between flour and middlings in size; or to the cut off section of a flour dressing machine.
  • Dust Collector
    Machine for removing dust from exhaust air.
  • Dusting
    Removal of flour from stocks before purification.
  • Dyox
    A flour Improver.
  • Effective Purifier
    Gravity machine in which separation of stocks is achieved by passage of air currents.
  • Effluent Recovery Plant
    Machine for removal of beeswing, etc. from washing water before passage to drains.
  • Elevator
    Band with buckets attached for lifting stock.
  • Extraction Rate
    Percentage of flour obtained from grist.
  • Face
    Applied to width of a pulley, or the working side of a millstone. In face means in line or truth.
  • Fan
    Bladed rotor, in a fixed case, for exhaust or movement of air.
  • Farinograph
    A dough testing machine.
  • Feeder
    A machine for accurate mixture of chemicals.
  • Feed Divider
    See Divider.
  • Feed Gate
    Part of machine controlling the entry of stock.
  • Filter
    A chamber containing sleeve filter elements to treat dust laden air.
  • Flaking
    Flattened agglomerations of stock produced by heavy roll pressures.
  • Flaking Mill
    Rollermill used for flaking maize or oil seeds.
  • Flow Sheet
    Diagram showing distribution of stocks and machines in milling process.
  • Flume
    Inlet to a waterwheel or turbine.
  • Fluting
    Serrations or grooves in break or scratch roll surfaces.
  • Frictional Cleaning
    Cleaning of grain by friction as in scourers and brush machines.
  • Friction Hoist
    Sack hoist thrown in gear by friction plates, pulleys or wheels.
  • Furrows
    The grooving of a millstone.
  • Gate
    The door or gate regulating the supply of water to a turbine.
  • Germ
    The seed or germinating portion of a grain.
  • Gluten
    That portion of flour which coagulates when made into dough.
  • Grader
    Machine for classifying mill stocks by size.
  • Grading
    Process of classification of stocks, or sometimes applied to the natural separation of large from small stock from an emptying bin.
  • Granularity
    Degree of fineness of dress.
  • Gravity Separator
    Machine for classifying and separating products with only a slight difference in specific gravity.
  • Grit Gauze
    Heavy silk bolting cloth.
  • Grooves
    See Fluting.
  • Grist
    Commonly applied to wheat mixture or mill feed.
  • Heated Grain
    Grain with gluten characteristics impaired by overheating in storage or drying.
  • Helical Gears
    Spur gears with V-shaped teeth (either double helical or single helical) to provide a smooth uniform motion without jar or backlash.
  • High Grinding
    Grinding by more than one operation with stones, or when the weight of the stone is partly carried by the spindle and not by the wheat alone, such as with under runners in contra-distinction to Low Grinding.
  • Hopper
    A feed bin angled towards the outlet.
  • Horizontal Rolls
    Roller mills having rolls whose axes are parallel.
  • Hurst
    The framing for millstones and gearing.
  • Hydrogen Cyanide
    A highly poisonous gas used for fumigation.
  • Impact Grinder
    High speed percussion grinder.
  • Improvers
    Substances which enhance the baking quality of flour.
  • Intake Plant
    Quay, road or railside plant used in the discharge of grain.
  • Intensive Dampener
    Machine for adding about 5% moisture to wheat in one stage.
  • Joggler
    A shaking sieve.
  • Land
    Flat surface between furrows of a millstone or between grooves of a fluted roll.
  • Line Diverters
    Hand or remotely controlled mechanism for switching streams in pneumatic conveying lines.
  • Magnetic Separators
    Either permanent or electromagnet fitted into spouts and over which grain or stock passes for removal of stray iron or steel.
  • Maltose
    Malt sugar produced by action of diastase on starch.
  • Manometer
    U-tube filled with liquid to measure pressure in air duct systems.
  • Meal
    The whole product of wheat or stones before dressing.
  • Measurer
    A grain feeding device.
  • Mesh
    Aperture size of silk or wire covers.
  • Methol Bromide
    A highly poisonous gas used for fumigation.
  • Micrometer
    Device for fine adjustment of rolls.
  • Middlings
    Mill stock between semolina and flour in size.
  • Millerator
    A wheat cleaning machine.
  • Millstone Driver
    See Driving Irons.
  • Millstone Spindle
    The upright shaft which drives the stones.
  • Millstone Staff
    A wood or iron disc or straight piece of timber used for trueing up the millstone face.
  • Mixer
    A measuring device for wheat, flour or chemicals.
  • Moisture Content
    The percentage of water in grain or products.
  • Moisture Testing
    The estimation of water content of grain or products.
  • Moth
    Webbing or larvae of Mediterranean flour moth.
  • Multitubular Dust Collector
    System of textile sleeves for removal of dust from exhaust air.
  • Nutrients
    Chemical compounds added to flour for enrichment of vitamin content.
  • Offals
    Generally understood to be all products of grain after flour is removed.
  • Out of Wind
    Applied to stones out of truth.
  • Outsiftings
    The fine material passed through the clothing of a dressing machine.
  • Overtails
    The material passed over the tail end of a dressing machine.
  • Packer
    A machine used for the filling of sacks.
  • Paddle Worm
    A conveyor with separate reversible blades to run right or left hand.
  • Patents
    Top grade flours.
  • Pekar Test
    Colour test in which a flattened portion of flour is wet up.
  • Pellet Mill
    Machine for producing pellets or cubes for animal feeds.
  • Percentage
    Extraction rate.
  • Pericarp
    A bran skin.
  • Persulphate
    Ammonium persulphate used as a flour improver.
  • Pitot Tube
    Special tube used in conjunction with a manometer to obtain air velocities in air ducts.
  • Plansifter
    Nests of sieves in boxes, working in a horizontal plane used as scalpers, graders and dressers.
  • Pneumatic Conveying
    The movement of mill stocks by use of controlled air currents as opposed to mechanical means.
  • Pollard
    Small bran.
  • Posser
    A bumping device to assist filling of sacks.
  • Powder Feeder
    A small machine for delivering chemicals in accurately controlled amounts.
  • Preliminary Cleaning
    The partial cleaning of grain on arrival, before passage to silos.
  • Pressure Dust Collectors
    A machine into which a fan delivers its air for cleaning purposes.
  • Primary Stocks
    Semolina, middlings, etc. produced on break rolls as opposed to reduction roll stocks.
  • Prime Mover
    Initial source of motive power.
  • Protein
    Complex organic compounds containing nitrogen. Colloidal in character.
  • Proteolytic enzyme
    An enzyme which promotes softening of the gluten during fermentation.
  • Purifier
    A machine using sifting action with air currents applied for separation of light offaly material from stocks before passage to reduction rolls.
  • Quarter Twist Belt
    A belt communicating motion to a shaft at right angles to the driver.
  • Receiving House
    Building in which weighing and preliminary cleaning of grain is performed before passing into silos.
  • Reduction Rolls
    Smooth rolls for production of flour as opposed to break rolls.
  • Reel
    A scalping or grading machine; a revolving sieve.
  • Release
    See Break Release.
  • Repurification
    Second purification of primary stocks which are difficult to purify in one operation.
  • Ringing
    A scalping or grading machine; a revolving sieve.
  • Rope Drives
    Endless ropes of cotton, leather or composition, running in grooved pulleys.
  • Scalper
    A sifting machine used to scalp or dress the chop from the break rolls.
  • Scalperator
    A machine designed for preliminary cleaning of grain.
  • Scourer
    A frictional grain cleaning machine.
  • Scraper
    A device for cleaning roll surfaces.
  • Scratch Rolls
    Finely fluted rolls used to treat impure semolina for the release of middlings for further purification.
  • Screenings
    Impurities removed from grain before grinding.
  • Screens / Screenroom
    Applied to the wheat cleaning department generally.
  • Scutellum
    Cellular layer between germ and endosperm, rich in vitamin B1.
  • Seal
    See Airlock.
  • Separator
    A wheat cleaning machine for removing foreign material from the grain.
  • Semolina
    The larger portions of endosperm released during the breaking down process.
  • Sifter
    See Plansifter.
  • Silo
    A wheat storage bin, or collection of bins.
  • Sizing
    Grading of stocks by size.
  • Smooth Rolls
    Reduction rolls
  • Smut
    A disease of wheat, giving rise to balls of black powder with the appearance of soot.
  • Spatula
    A polished metal flat spoon for flour testing purposes.
  • Speciality Flour
    Flour produced for a special purpose or particular process.
  • Spiral Gravity Separator
    Machine for removal of round seeds from wheat.
  • Spouting
    Metal or wooden trunks for passage of stocks by gravity.
  • Spring Wheat
    Wheat sown in spring.
  • Sprouted Grain
    Grain which has begun to germinate.
  • Stacking
    Stowing or topping of products in warehouse.
  • Staff
    See Millstone Staff.
  • Stoning
    Extraction of stones from grain during the washing process.
  • Straight Run
    Mixture of flour produced from all the dressing machines.
  • Stratification
    Separation of small from large particles by reciprocating motion of sieve, in which smaller particles sink to the bottom of the layer of the stock.
  • Suction Filter Dust Collector
    Collection of sleeves through which an exhaust fan draws its air for cleaning purposes.
  • Suction Plant
    Pneumatic intake plant.
  • Tailing
    See Overtails.
  • Tempering
    Mellowing of grain to obtain optimum milling condition.
  • Tension Rods
    The rods which support the outer end of the lower roll bearing arms and control the adjustment.
  • Tension Spring
    Safety device incorporated in roller mills.
  • Warehouse Separator
    Reciprocating sieve with aspirator of large capacity for preliminary cleaning of grain.
  • Washer
    Wheat washing machine.
  • Water Absorption
    The quantity of water a flour will absorb to make a standard dough.
  • Water Cooling
    Cooling of rolls by passages of water through them.
  • Water Wheel Damper
    A device for adding water to grain in controlled quantities.
  • Weigher
    Usually applied to automatic machine delivering pre-determined weight of product to sack.
  • Wheatfeed
    By-products of the milling process.
  • Wheatmeal
    Meal made from wheat with only part of the bran removed.
  • Wheat Mixture
    The mill feed.
  • Whizzer
    A centrifugal wheat drying machine used to remove surplus water picked up in the washer.
  • Yield
    Percentage of the flour produced.
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