BELOW IS A LIST OF GLOSSARY TERMS USED IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

  • ABSORPTION
    A characteristic property of flour to take up and retain water or other liquid. Absorption is determined by measuring the quantity of liquid needed to produce a dough of desired consistency, and is expressed in percent, the percent being the number of kilograms of water or other liquid needed per 100 kilograms of flour.
  • ACETIC ACID
    The acid in Vinegar. Weak organic acid often used with salts such as calcium or sodium in powder form as a preventative against rope in bread. eg. calcium acetate and sodium diacetate. (See Vinegar)
  • ACID
    A chemical compound which yields hydrogen ions when in a solution. Acids react with bases to form salts and water. They have a sour taste and possess the property of turning blue litmus paper red. Acid materials have a pH of less than 7.
  • ACTIVE DRY YEAST
    Active dry yeast is produced by drying specially prepared compressed yeast under carefully controlled conditions designed to preserve yeast activity. Has moisture content of 6 to 8%. For best results, this yeast should be rehydrated with water at 38 to 40°C for 15 minutes before use.
  • ADDITIVES
    The generic name given to substances, sometimes called improvers, which may be added to bakery foods, usually in very small percentages. Includes materials such as humectants, sequestrants and/ or propellants, anti-foaming, and/or anti-caking, or firming, crisping, and/or anti-staling agents, oxidising and reducing agents and emulsifiers, etc. Their use is intended to prolong the 'shelf life' or to improve products in other ways.
  • AGAR
    A substance obtained primarily from two types of red algae, Chondrus crispus and Gigartina mamilosa, it has a gelatinous effect when combined with liquids. It is used as a thickening agent in sauces, fillings, jellies, etc. It is also used extensively as a stabiliser in sweet goods icings to bind free water and prevent weeping.
  • AGED FLOUR (MATURED)
    Flour of which the baking performance has been improved by natural oxidation during storage.
  • AGEING
    A process of holding materials, such as flour, under prescribed conditions for definite periods of time, until certain desirable changes have been effected or until the flour is matured.
  • ALBUMIN (OR ALBUMEN)
    One of the proteins occurring in animal and vegetable tissue, such as the white of an egg. Albumins are characterised by two properties: they coagulate when heated and they are soluble in water.
  • ALCOHOL
    An organic compound containing the hydroxide group (OR) which has been substituted for a hydrogen atom of a hydrocarbon. The alcohol formed during bread dough fermentation is grain or ethyl alcohol, the same alcohol found in beer and whisky.
  • ALKALI
    A hydroxide of a metal with strong basic properties. The most common alkalis are caustic soda and caustic potash. (sodium hydroxide NaOH and potassium hydroxide KOR).
  • ALKALINE
    An excess of hydroxyl (-OR) ions in an aqueous solution. Alkaline products have a pH greater than 7.
  • ALLSPICE
    The name given to Pimento or Jamaican pepper (Pimenta dioica), and which possesses a flavour similar to the combined flavours of cinnamon, nutmeg and clove.
  • ALMOND
    The nut (kernel or seed) of a small tree similar to the peach (Prunus amygdalus).
  • ALMOND PASTE
    Almonds ground to paste, with sugar added as a preservative.
  • ALPHA AMYLASE
    Also known as the liquefying amylase, it is the enzyme which acts to break down cereal starch, producing primarily dextrins. This enzyme is found in diastatic malt produced from sprouted grain and from fungal and bacterial fermentations.
  • ALVEOGRAPH
    A dough-testing machine which measures the extensibility of dough by expanding a disc of dough with compressed air and recording, on moving graph paper, the degree of extensibility of the dough before the bubble bursts. The resultant graph gives an indication of the stability, the extensibility and comparative strength of the proteins of the flour under test.
  • AMINO ACIDS
    Organic compounds containing amino and carboxyl groups. They are referred to as the 'building blocks' from which proteins are formed.
  • AMMONIA (NH3 )
    A chemical compound which is a colourless gas. However, as generally used, the term refers to this compound dissolved in water. In the baking trade it is one of the names given to the solid salt 'ammonium bicarbonate.'
  • AMMONIUM BICARBONATE (NH4HCG3 )
    A salt-like compound which decomposes into ammonia gas and carbon dioxide gas when heated. It is frequently used as a leavening agent for biscuits. It is not satisfactory for higher moisture bakery foods since ammonia is retained in the product, producing an off odour and flavour.
  • AMMONIUM CARBONATE ([NH412 CGa)
    Used like ammonium bicarbonate.
  • AMMONIUM CHLORIDE (NH4Cl)
    An ammonium salt frequently added to yeast foods as a source of nitrogen for yeast metabolism.
  • AMYLASE
    A group of enzymes capable of hydrolysing starches to dextrins and/or maltose. (See Diastase)
  • AMYLASE, ALPHA
    (See Alpha Amylase)
  • AMYLASE, BACTERIAL
    (See Bacterial Amylase)
  • AMYLASE, BETA
    (See Beta Amylase)
  • AMYLASE, CEREAL
    (See Cereal Amylase)
  • AMYLASE, FUNGAL
    (See Fungal Amylase)
  • AMYLOGRAPH
    An instrument which measures change in viscosity of a variety of materials, such as flour and water mixtures, when heat is increased at a constant rate or heated at a constant temperature over a definite period of time. The instrument may also be used for studying the effects of enzymes on various materials under varying conditions of temperature and time.
  • AMYLOSE
    Sometimes used synonymously with the term 'starch,' but more properly referring to 'straight chain' starch.
  • ANGEL FOOD CAKE
    A fine white cake, made without shortening, consisting of egg whites, sugar, flavouring and flour, and usually baked in a tube pan.
  • ANGEL FOOD PAN
    A round pan containing a round tube in the centre. The pan must be kept grease free to prevent the foam-like batter from collapsing during baking.
  • ANISEED
    The liquorice flavoured seed of the anise plant (Pimpinella anisum). It is primarily used as a finely ground powder or in an oil form for flavouring. Used in breads and biscuits.
  • ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT
    Any substance, usually a chemical or a mixture of chemicals, that has the ability to prevent or retard the growth of micro-organisms.
  • ANTIOXIDANT
    Health regulations ensure not more than 1% on oil volume. A substance which increases the useful life of a fat because it reduces the rate at which the fat becomes rancid. Propyl gallate, butylated hy-droxyanisole (BHA), and tertiary butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) are examples of manufactured antioxidants allowed by the Department of Health and Population Development for use in foods. Example: BHA added to shortenings to prevent rancidity.
  • APPLE
    The fruit of a tree of the genus Malus.
  • APPLE PECTIN
    The jellying agent in ripe apples, sold in liquid or dry form.
  • APPLE STRUDEL
    The popular Apple Strudel of Austria which consists of a rolled sheet of very thin strudel dough which encloses a great quantity of peeled and cored apples, brown sugar, butter and raisins.
  • APPLES, DRIED
    (See Dried Apples)
  • APPLES, DRY PACK
    (See Dry Pack Apples)
  • APRICOT GLAZE
    A jam-like product of boiled apricots and sugar used to produce a surface shine to sweet goods and Danish after baking.
  • APRICOT PULP
    Ripe apricots halved, stoned, and then preserved without sugar by sterilisation.
  • AROMATIC COMPOUNDS
    Pertaining to or containing the 6 carbon ring characteristics of the benzene series and related organic compounds.
  • ASCORBIC ACID (AA) (VITAMIN C)
    A naturally occurring vitamin (C) that is used in the baking industry as an improving agent in yeast doughs. Its effects on the physical properties of dough depend on both its oxidising and reducing actions. In continuous-mixed doughs, in the absence of oxygen, it acts as a reducing agent, while in other doughs, it functions as an oxidant. It is destroyed by oven heat.
  • ASH
    The mineral residue left after complete combustion of a substance and, in the case of flour and other foods, composed mainly of potash, soda, lime, magnesia, sulphates, phosphates, and silicates. Frequently used as a specification in determining flour baking quality, it is more properly a criterion of the amount of flour (extraction) produced from wheat by the milling process.
  • BACILLUS MESENTERICUS VULGATUS
    The germs or bacteria causing rope disease in bread and cake. These spores are highly resistant to variations of temperature and easily withstand baking processes. The spores originate in the soil and are found on the outsides of wheat berries, particularly in the crease of each berry. (See Rope)
  • BACTERIA
    Microscopic, unicellular organisms which reproduce by fission. They are found in soil, water and most material throughout nature. Some are responsible for diseases and food spoilage.
  • BACTERIAL AMYLASE
    Amylase enzyme derived from growth of bacteria on a suitable medium. Amylase from this source is relatively heat stable and is not fully destroyed by oven heat.
  • BAGEL
    A fermented bakery food, roughly in the shape of a ring doughnut. Prepared according to a relatively lean formula. Characterised by placing in boiling water for 30 seconds to 2 minutes prior to baking.
  • BAIN-MARIE
    A double boiler or one vessel containing hot or warm water into which another, smaller vessel is placed.
  • BAKE LOSS
    Amount of moisture and volatile material removed from a product during baking.
  • BAKE OFF
    These are in-store supermarket bakeries which use prepared frozen doughs. They have only to 'bake off' the product after defrosting and proofing for yeast products, and defrosting of chemically leavened products.
  • BAKER
    A term commonly applied to all who work in and about a bakery.
  • BAKER'S DOZEN
    A group of thirteen. An extra loaf of each dozen supplied in olden times to ensure that the correct weight of bread was delivered. Attributed to Henry VIII of England, who decreed beheading for bakers whose dozen rolls did not reach a fixed weight. Fearful bakers began giving thirteen rolls to the dozen in order to be safe.
  • BAKER'S FERMENTATION
    Calculated from the time the sponge or straight dough is mixed until the dough is delivered for make-up.
  • BAKER'S PERCENT
    Measures the weight of individual formal ingredients as a percentage of total flour weight. Total weight of flour is 100%. Thus, the sum of all ingredient percentages is always more than 100%.
  • BAKER'S YEAST
    A culture of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown under specially controlled conditions or a wort made from molasses and inorganic yeast substrates. Can be supplied in pressed cake form (pats) or crumbled particles and in dried forms.
  • BAKERY
    A place where products such as bread, cakes, pastries and biscuits are manufactured. A shop where bakery foods are sold (bakeshop or bakehouse).
  • BAKING HEARTH
    The floor of the oven's baking chamber.
  • BAKING POWDER
    A dry mixture of bicarbonate of soda and one or more acid substances compounded to generate a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas under ordinary conditions of baking. The neutralised residues in the baked goods are not injurious to health or otherwise objectionable.
  • BAKING SHEETS (PANS)
    Aluminium, steel or iron trays on which confectionery is baked. They are usually turned up on all four edges.
  • BAKING SODA (BICARBONATE OF SODA, SODIUM BICARBONATE)
    A sodium salt of carbonic acid having the ability to combine with leavening acids to produce carbon dioxide.
  • BAKING TIME
    The time needed to bake products to develop the desired characteristics.
  • BALADY BREAD
    A sour-dough pocket bread similar to pita, produced with 80 - 82% extraction flour. Popular in the Middle East, especially Egypt.
  • BARBARI BREAD
    A flat, elongated Middle Eastern bread characterised by longitudinal ridges or grooves. (See Pita)
  • BARLEY (HORDEUM VULGARE)
    A cereal grain somewhat similar to wheat in composition, though lacking in gluten. Owing to its high degree of diastatic power when moistened and sprouted, barley is extensively used as the cereal when making malt.
  • BARLEY MALT
    Malt made from barley by moistening, germinating and carefully heating the grain under controlled conditions. During this process, the embryo germinates and the seed begins to grow. When these activities have reached the most satisfactory stage, the process is stopped by air (or kiln) drying. If drying takes place at low temperature, the enzymes retain their powers even after the malt has been ground, producing a highly-diastatic malt flour. Higher temperatures reduce the activities of the various enzymes and low or non-diastatic malts are produced.
  • BAROMETER
    Instrument for determining the pressure of the atmosphere.
  • BASE
    Chemical compound which yields hydroxyl ions (OH) in water solution. Bases react with acids to form salts and water. They turn red litmus paper blue. They are also called alkalis.
  • BATCH
    An amount produced at one mixing.
  • BATCH WEIGHT
    A given quantity of batter or dough, the weight of which is determined either by the equipment size or the amount needed to produce the desired quantity of finished product.
  • BATTER
    A thin mixture of pouring consistency, composed of flour, water or milk, and other ingredients as used for making cakes, pancakes, biscuits, waffles, etc.
  • BATTER SPONGE (LIQUID SPONGE PREFERMENT)
    Very soft pulpable dough or ferment used in some processes of bread making. Ratio of water to flour is 1.1:1 or greater. (See Liquid Sponge Brew)
  • BEAT (WHIP)
    To whip air into a liquid mass such as eggs, heavy cream, or gelatine solution to a desired lightness.
  • BEATER
    A mixer arm inside the bowl of mixing equipment which blends and/or aerates the batter. May be of several configurations, such as a flat paddle or a wire beater.
  • BENCH
    A heavy work table used by the baker on which he prepares bakery foods.
  • BENCH BRUSH
    A brush approximately 300 millimetres long used for cleaning flour, sugar and other dry ingredients from the bench.
  • BERRY
    1. Any small, roundish, juicy fruit without stone. 2. The wheat berry is the grain of wheat.
  • BETA AMYLASE
    The enzyme which acts on soluble starch and dextrin, producing maltose; often known as the saccharifying amylase.
  • BHA (BUTYLATED HYDROXYANISOLE)
    An antioxidant which helps stabilise fats and oils by retarding oxidation. It may also protect fat-soluble vitamins A,D and E. BHA is used in cereals, edible fat, vegetable oil, confectionery products and rice.
  • BIN
    A container for the storage of dry ingredients in the bakery.
  • BISCUIT (SA TERMINOLOGY)
    A thin, sweetened or unsweetened cake, it may be crisp, dry and hard or it may be soft. There are hundreds of varieties of biscuits made from all kinds of doughs and pastries.
  • BLANCH
    To remove the skin of various nuts by scalding in water. Example: blanched almonds.
  • BLAST FREEZER
    A compartment in which goods are rapidly reduced in temperature by submitting them to a strong current (2.5 to 4.0 metres per second) of very cold air, usually about minus 34°C.
  • BLEND
    A mixture of several ingredients or several grades of one ingredient.
  • BLENDING
    1. A term used in the milling industry which refers to mixing two or more wheats or flours together to produce a flour with certain desired characteristics. 2. The method or order in which the ingredients are incorporated in either a batter or dough. 3. Combining or mixing so as to render.
  • BOIL
    To bubble, emitting vapour, when heat is applied. Boiling temperature for water is 100°C at sea level.
  • BOILED ICING
    An icing made by boiling sugar and water to thread stage 114.5°C, then slowly adding it to beaten egg whites with additional beating.
  • BOILED MERINGUE
    Italian meringue. Meringue produced by boiling sugar with water to the hard ball stage at 121°C, then pouring this over well beaten egg whites.
  • BOILER
    Closed pressure vessel in which a liquid, such as water, is heated and vaporised under pressure by the application of heat produced from combustible fuels. Also may be vaporised under vacuum with heat.
  • BOSTON LOAF
    A dark sweet loaf, chemically leavened, containing dates, nuts and fruit. This loaf is steamed and not baked.
  • BOTTOM HEAT
    The heat given off by the hearth or bottom section of the oven beneath the product being baked.
  • BOWL KNIFE
    A spatula or flexible dull-edged knife used to scrape batter or dough from bowl sides.
  • BRAN
    The broken coat of the seed of wheat, rye or other cereal grain, separated from the flour or meal by sifting or bolting; the coarse chaff of ground grain; if not otherwise specified, usually of wheat.
  • BRAN, MAIZE
    (See Maize Bran)
  • BRAN MUFFIN
    Sweet cake-type muffin containing a large percentage of wheat bran.
  • BREAD
    The accepted term for baked foods produced from doughs made of flour, water, salt, with other optional materials, and leavened by the action of yeast.
  • BREAD CRUMBS
    Small particles or fragments of bread produced during slicing of bread loaves; dried bread ground into crumbs and used for breading, coatings or stuffings.
  • BREAD DOUGH
    The unbaked mass resulting from thoroughly mixing the ingredients used in making bread.
  • BREAD FAULTS
    Deviations from standards of perfection; used to determine factors in the process of bread production which cause deficiencies.
  • BREAD FLAVOUR
    The total sensation experienced when bread is taken into the mouth, including taste, odour and mouth feel.
  • BREAD FLOUR
    Flour milled from hard wheat, usually containing in excess of 10% protein. These flours contain protein which produces a strong gluten when mixed into a dough which, along with high absorption and good tolerance, makes them suitable for making yeast-leavened products.
  • BREAD IMPROVER
    Any of a wide group of mixtures and compounds which may act to improve bread quality.
  • BREAD MAKING
    The overall process of converting flour into bread which includes the different stages of mixing fermentation, dough make-up, proofing and baking.
  • BREAD PAN
    A baking pan of various metals for controlling the shape and size of bread during baking.
  • BREAD SLICER
    Bread slicing equipment with 2 rotating metal drums which drive the endless slicing blades. Blades are set in guides which provide uniform slices. Guides are adjustable for varied slice thickness.
  • BREAK
    The more or less rough portion of the crust formed during oven spring. It may be on one or both sides of the loaf.
  • BREAKDOWN (OF FATS)
    A general term describing the onset or progress of undesirable physical change or chemical change in a fat or oil, also decomposition of fat. 'Breakdown' of frying fats is indicated by excessive darkening, formation of free fatty acids or peroxides, polymerisation, gumming and foaming. Undesirable flavours and odours often accompany the chemical changes involved in breakdown.
  • BRIOCHE
    A sweet, yeast-raised bun, rich in egg and baked in single pans. It is characterised by a small piece of dough placed on top of a larger piece.
  • BRIX
    Refers to an arbitrary scale for the direct conversion of specific gravity of sugar solutions into concentration of the sugar. This concentration is given in degrees Brix.
  • BROWN SUGAR
    Sugars not completely refined, retaining some molasses, creating a brown colour and unique flavour. Generally produced from sugar cane.
  • BROWNIE
    A heavy, moist, fudge-like chocolate cake. Very popular in the USA.
  • BROWNING REACTION
    Chemical reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, in the presence of heat, resulting in dark, caramel-like compounds. This type of reaction is mainly responsible for crust colour development in bread and it contributes to the flavour of the crust. Sometimes referred to as the 'Maillard' reaction.
  • BUFFER
    A solution or material which changes very little in pH when quantities of acid or alkali are added. In a bread dough, flour exerts a very considerable buffering action. Some yeast foods contain buffering salts. Milk is a buffering agent in bread dough.
  • BULGUR
    Wet-cooked wheat which is dried and may be cracked or ground into flour.
  • BULK FERMENTATION
    Term used to describe a large mass of fermenting sponge or dough.
  • BUN
    Small yeast-raised bakery piece (less than 100g), sometimes slightly sweetened or flavoured. Example: hamburger, hot dog, hot cross.
  • BUN DIVIDER/ROUNDER
    A mechanical device for separating a weighed portion of bun dough into a certain number of equal parts (usually 30-36) by volume, followed by rounding into balls, thus saving time in weighing each piece.
  • BUN GLAZE
    A liquid brushed over hot buns to make their surfaces glossy. Sugar solutions; mixtures of eggs, sugar and milk; and gelatin or gum solutions are used for this purpose. Glazes containing eggs or milk must be applied before baking for health reasons.
  • BURNER (OVEN)
    The part of an oven where combustion takes place to produce the heat for the oven chamber.
  • BUTTER
    The product obtained from the churning of cream and which complies with standards prescribed by regulations under the marketing act. Minimum fat content of 80% for salted butter (maximum 2% salt). Minimum fat content of 82% for unsalted butter (2% extra fat in place of salt). Maximum moisture content of 16%.
  • BUTTER ICING
    A lightly beaten mixture of butter and sugar, with or without other additions, including colours and essences. Rich uncooked frosting containing powdered sugar, butter and / or other shortening and egg whites.
  • BUTTERCREME ICING
    Made by creaming sugar and shortening together to form a light aerated mass. Flavouring may also be added.
  • BUTTERSCOTCH
    Sugar, water and butter boiled to the hard crack degree. The resultant sweetmeat sets hard and is often used, with or without nuts, for chocolate centres. A flavour produced by the use of butter and brown sugar.
  • BY-PRODUCT
    A product, other than the main product, resulting from a manufacturing process. Example: breadcrumbs and certain types of toast, etc, are by-products of the main product of the baking industry, bread.
  • CAKE
    A soft product obtained by baking an aerated batter containing flour, sugar, flavouring, baking powder and often shortening and eggs.
  • CAKE BEATER
    The flat beater used in a cake batter mixer.
  • CAKE FAULTS
    Deviations from the standards of perfection for the particular type of cake.
  • CAKE FLOUR
    A highly refined (low ash) flour milled from soft wheat and treated with chlorine for bleaching and maturing.
  • CAKE IMPROVER
    Special ingredients of the emulsifier type used for improving cake volume, texture, tenderness and shelf life.
  • CAKE SLABBER
    Device for slicing sheet or layer cakes horizontally to produce a top and bottom slab or layer, usually for placing filling between the slabs.
  • CALCIUM CARBONATE (LIMESTONE)
    A calcium salt sometimes used in yeast foods. May be used to add dietary calcium to bread. Used in liquid ferment systems as a buffering agent.
  • CALCIUM PROPIONATE
    A salt of an organic acid (propionic acid) used in small quantities in bread and other bakery foods to inhibit the growth of moulds and rope. Its most effective pH range in bakery foods is 5.0 to 5.5.
  • CALCIUM STEAROYL LACTYLATE (CSL)
    An emulsifying agent which provides dough strengthening and crumb softening benefits, including improved mixing tolerance, gas retention, loaf volume, slicing characteristics and extended shelf life in yeast-raised bakery foods. Also functions as a whipping agent in vegetable-type toppings. Usage is 0.25 to 0.5%, based on the flour in the formula.
  • CALCIUM SULPHATE (GYPSUM)
    An edible calcium salt commonly found in yeast foods and icing stabilisers. Chemically, plaster of Paris is a hydrated form of calcium sulphate. May be used to add dietary calcium to bread. (See Gypsum)
  • CALORIE
    The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade (Celsius). The term calorie in common use equals 1000 such calories, sometimes also called kilo-calorie (Kcal).
  • CALZONE
    A type of folded pizza that may be baked or deep fried and served hot or cold. Most pizza toppings are appropriate for filling calzone, but should contain less liquid to avoid soggy crust. (See also Panzerotti)
  • CANE SUGAR
    Sucrose produced from sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum.
  • CANOLA OIL
    A low erucic acid oil produced from a special cultivar of rapeseed. Canola identifies the cultivars of Brasica napus and Brasica campestris which are genetically low in erucic acid and glucosinolates. Oil is very high in mono-unsaturated fat, a desirable nutritional trait. It is the lowest in saturated fat among common oils used in food industry.
  • CARAMEL
    Sugars (including glucose syrups) that are heated up with or without approved chemicals. It is used for flavouring and colouring.
  • CARAMEL BUNS
    Sweet dough pieces baked in a pan on a layer of caramel sugar and nuts, usually pecans.
  • CARAMEL COLOUR
    Colouring agent used by bakers, especially in rye breads. It is prepared by heating maize syrup at an alkaline pH.
  • CARAMEL SUGAR
    Cane sugar boiled to a certain density, then cooled and pulled; for use in decorating.
  • CARAMELISATION
    The production of caramel. The reason for crust colour. The heat of the oven causes some of the sugar contained in bread and cakes to caramelise on the product surface.
  • CARAWAY SEEDS
    Seeds from the parsley herb, Carum carui, used for flavouring certain types of bread, rolls, etc.
  • COARSE
    When the cell structure of a loaf is rough and very open, it is said to have a coarse texture. Usually, but not always, coarseness is accompanied by unevenness of texture. It is generally related to the thickness of the cell wall and also to dryness of the crumb (opposite of close texture).
  • COCOA
    A powder made from chocolate liquor from which much of the cocoa butter has been pressed or extracted. Dutch-process cocoa is a modification in that an alkaline substance is used to modify the flavour and colour of the cocoa product. Dutch process cocoa has a pH range of 6.5 to 8.1 and a red-brown colour which tends to produce red-brown bakery foods with a mild flavour. Natural cocoa has a pH of 5.2 to 5.9 and a yellow orange colour which tends to produce lighter brown bakery foods.
  • COCOA BUTTER
    A product of the manufacture of cocoa. The butter is obtained by pressing chocolate nibs to yield cocoa butter and presscake.
  • COCONUT
    Generally referring to the inside meat of the coconut, shredded or grated, and desiccated (dried).
  • COCONUT OIL
    A 'tropical' oil extracted from copra, the dried fruit pulp of the coconut. Typical analysis is 92% saturated fat, 6% monosaturated fat and 2% polyunsaturated fat.
  • COFFEE CAKE
    Sweet yeast-leavened baked product made up in various shapes, with filling or topping or both.
  • COLD DOUGHS
    Doughs which are mixed to a lower than normal temperature for a particular bakery food, either by design or by accident. The term usually indicates dough which requires longer than normal fermentation.
  • COLD SPOTS
    Spots in the oven where the temperature is less than the average temperature of the oven chamber.
  • COLOUR
    Shades produced by the use of dyes or natural colourants, such as cocoa, molasses, eggs, etc.
  • COMPOSITE FLOUR
    A flour made by blending varying amounts of non-wheat flour with wheat flour. Used for the production of baked goods that are traditionally made from wheat flour.
  • COMPOUND SHORTENING
    A shortening prepared by blending animal and vegetable fats or oils. Sometimes referred to as AIV blends.
  • CHOCOLATE
    A product prepared from finely ground and roasted cocoa nibs (shelled beans) and blended with sugar and additional cocoa butter fat. The addition of varying amounts of milk is optional. Small quantities of Lecithin are often added to control the crystallisation rate of the fat. Chocolate is generally refined (milled) and cooked for long hours to produce a very fine and smooth texture and to develop flavour.
  • CHOCOLATE LIQUOR
    The product obtained from finely ground chocolate nibs (the meat of roasted cocoa beans). Chocolate liquor consists of approximately 53% cocoa butterfat and 47% cocoa solids.
  • CHORLEYWOOD BREAD PROCESS (CBP)
    Bread-making process developed by the Flour Milling and Baking Research Association, Chorleywood, England, which uses high-speed mixing for optimum development of the dough. One of a number of bread-making processes that use the mechanical dough development principle rather than fermentation, for proper conditioning of dough.
  • CHOUX PASTE
    Paste produced by beating eggs into a mixture of fat and gelatinised flour. When piped out and baked, the mixture expands considerably, producing an extremely light case which can be filled with whipped cream or similar material, then covered with icing sugar or iced with flavoured fondant.
  • CINNAMON
    The aromatic bark of certain trees of the laurel family, genus Cinnamomum, ground and used as a spice flavouring.
  • CITRIC ACID
    A crystalline solid used in food products, generally as an acidulant. Citric acid is naturally found in oranges, lemons and limes and can be used in cakes and pies to impart tartness to the product. Also a chelating agent, it assists in reducing oxidative rancidity in bakery foods. It functions to combine with metals, such as copper and iron, which accelerate oxidative rancidity development.
  • CITRUS PECTIN
    Pectin obtained from the seeds of citrus fruits.
  • CLOVE
    The undeveloped flower buds of the clove tree, Eugenia caryophyllata or Syzygium aromaticum, which are usually ground for use as a spice in cakes or pastries.
  • CELSIUS
    From Anders Celsius, originator of the Celsius, or Centigrade thermometer scale. (See Centigrade)
  • CENTIGRADE (Celsius)
    The name of the thermometer scale which has the freezing point of water marked at zero and the boiling point at 100°C. Also degrees Celsius. (See Celsius)
  • CEREAL AMYLASE
    Amylase enzyme extracted from sprouted grain, usually barley or wheat.
  • CEREALS
    Edible grains or farinaceous seeds or plants yielding them.
  • CHEESE BREAD
    Similar to milk bread but strongly flavoured with powdered cheese, or grated cheese or both.
  • CHEESE CAKE
    Either a shell made from sweet or short dough with a custard-type filling containing cheese, eggs, milk and sugar; or a batter base with a filling of combined cheese, eggs and milk.
  • CHEMICAL LEAVENING
    Production of gas (carbon dioxide) in a batter or dough system through chemical reactions. Usually the reaction of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with one or more acids, the most common being monocalcium phosphate, sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), sodium aluminium phosphate (SALP), and glucono delta lactone (GDL).
  • CHERRY
    Small stone fruit of trees or shrubs of the genus Prunus. Preserved glacé cherries, as used by the confectioner, are natural fruits that have been stoned, bleached, and preserved by boiling and steeping in coloured sugar syrups. To prepare such fruit for cake-making, it must be washed to remove surplus syrup and dried carefully to eliminate surplus moisture.
  • CHIFFON CAKE
    A cake generally baked in round tube pans. The batter is aerated by whipping high amounts of whole eggs, often enriched with extra egg yolks, into a light fluffy form. Small amounts of melted butter or vegetable oil are often incorporated into the aerated batter to produce a more tender cake structure.
  • CHLORINE
    An element having an approximate atomic weight of 35.5. It is a greenish-yellow, heavy, poisonous gas with a powerful, disagreeable odour. It combines with water, forming hypochlorous acid which readily gives up oxygen - hence its value as a bleaching agent. Chlorine gas is used for bleaching and improving flour (primarily soft wheat flour), one effect being to remove the colour from the flour. Chlorine also rapidly matures flour so that it acts as if naturally aged. High ratio cake flours are treated at higher levels to partially denature the gluten, thereby improving baking quality for this application.
  • CHLORINE DIOXIDE
    A chemical gas which has been used as an improving (maturing) agent in flour.
  • CARBOHYDRATES
    1. A group of substances which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen are present in the same ratio as in water. With the exception of glycogen (animal starch), carbohydrates are produced by plants. 2. Simple sugars or starches are termed 'utilisable' carbohydrates since they provide energy for our needs, while 'fibre', a complex carbohydrate, is an 'unutilisable' carbohydrate. 3. A general term for starchy foods.
  • CARBON DIOXIDE
    The gas produced by the action of yeast on fermentable sugars in a fermenting dough, causing the dough to rise (leaven). It is important in the production of the desirable spongy grain and texture of bread and other yeast-leavened bakery products. It is also the gas released by reaction between leavening acids and baking soda in production of cakes and other chemically-leavened bakery foods.
  • CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE (CMC)
    A water soluble cellulose in the form of sodium carboxymethylcellulose. It is available in various types and used as a thickener, stabiliser or binder in many bakery foods, primarily of the batter type.
  • CARDAMOM (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM)
    Seed of an East Indian spice plant of the ginger family; used for flavouring.
  • CAROTENE
    A yellow pigment occurring in leaves, carrots and other foodstuffs. It is a precursor of Vitamin A. The yellow colour that exists in unbleached flour is due in part to carotene.
  • CASHEW NUT
    The fruit of the Anacardium occidentale, a tree grown in the West Indies, South America, India, and the Malay Peninsula. Used as a topping or filling nut in sweet yeast-raised bakery foods.
  • CASSIA
    The dried bark of the Chinese aromatic cinnamon tree Cinnamomum cassi. It is used as a flavouring spice either in the form of finely rolled quills of the original bark or ground to powder.
  • CASTOR SUGAR
    Obtained by sieving granulated sugar into fine uniform crystal. This sugar is ideal for processes where shortening and sugar are creamed together for leavening-type products.
  • CATALYST
    A substance which, when added to a reaction mixture, will change the rate of reaction without itself being appreciably changed in nature or amount, or appearing as part of the end products of the reaction.
  • CELLULOSE
    The substance which makes up the cell wall and the fibrous or woody matter of plants. Cotton fibre is almost pure cellulose. Its generally accepted chemical formula is (C6H10O5)11 Is non-caloric in that it is not digested. (See Alpha Cellulose)
  • CELLULOSE ACETATE
    A thermal plastic material made by the esterification of cellulose with acetic anhydride and acetic acid, cellulose acetate may be extruded or cast into a transparent film. May be used in composition with plasticisers, pigments and so forth. It also may be moulded, extruded, cast or fabricated into various shapes.
  • COMPRESSED YEAST
    Also called baker's pat yeast and consists of a pressed cake (70% moisture) of yeast cells.
  • CONCENTRATE
    1. A process in which the solid material is made more predominant by removal of such materials as water. 2. In prepared mixes, a blend of more minute ingredients for use in a particular bakery food.
  • CONDENSATION
    Transition of a substance from the vapour to the liquid phase (as steam to water).
  • CONDENSED MILK
    Milk evaporated (water removed) to a fraction of the original volume, usually with sugar added as a preservative.
  • CONDITIONING (OF WHEAT) (TEMPERING)
    Making the wheat ready for milling. After washing and cleaning, the berries must be brought to the most suitable condition of moistness. If too dry, bran specks will be produced during the milling and may discolour flour. If too wet, the mill sifters become clogged with doughy flour. Wheats are usually conditioned to a moisture content of 15 to 16%. Process requires 12 to 36 hours for complete penetration of the moisture into the berry.
  • CONDUCTION (OF HEAT)
    Heat can be transferred from a hot to a cold body by three methods, of which conduction is one. In theory the heat is passed from molecule to molecule of a substance (such as a metal rod) by vibrations set up in the first, instigating similar vibrations in the next one in contact and so on, thus passing heat from the source to the far end of the rod.
  • CONFECTIONER
    A person engaged in the making and decorating of cakes, pastries and other types of fancy bakery foods. A sugar confectioner is one engaged in the manufacture of sweets, toffees and chocolates.
  • CONSISTENCY
    That property of a material by which it resists permanent change of shape. In baking, the fluidity of the dough is closely related to viscosity. A dough or batter of low consistency is one which is quite fluid. One of high consistency is stiff.
  • CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
    Method for packaging of foods to limit microbial (mould) growth through reducing or eliminating oxygen in the package by injecting an inert gas, such as nitrogen, into the package.
  • CONFECTIONERY
    The generic term for cakes, pastries, gateaux, torten and other similar products normally produced in a bakery, but excluding bread.
  • CONVENTIONAL PROCESS
    In relation to bread-making refers to a method, such as the sponge and dough fermentation process, which has been in use many years, as opposed to newer production processes, such as continuous mix (CBP and ADD) Chorleywood Bread process and activated dough development.
  • COOK
    To prepare food by heat. To undergo cooking. Using a cooking stove or other apparatus.
  • COOKING OIL
    An oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorised and has been winterised and stabilised. A cooking oil may be contrasted with a salad oil, which has had the high-melting fraction removed. Cooking oils may be used for deep fat frying in situations where the turnover of the oil is rapid and where extended shelf life of the fried foods is not required.
  • COOLER
    1. A device through which bread or biscuits hot from the oven are passed to cool for wrapping, or through which the conveyor belt from a chocolate enrobing machine passes to allow the chocolate covering on cakes, doughnuts or biscuits to set quickly without condensation or moisture. 2. Retarder or refrigerator.
  • COOLING CONVEYOR
    Conveyorised coolers which are usually suspended from the ceiling, leaving space underneath for installation of other equipment. These coolers are equipped with a fan system which draws in low velocity air at the discharge end and moves it past the loaves before exhausting the warmed air at the top or entry end.
  • CORE
    The heart or the centre. Cores in cake or bread, however, are coarse-textured portions of the crumb or heavy uncooked layers or seams which are detrimental to the quality of the article.
  • CORN CONES
    Ground corn used for dusting dough pieces to prevent them from adhering to boards and tables. Particles are finer than meal, but coarser (larger) than flour.
  • CORNFLOUR
    Flour ground from maize from which the germ and outer hull is first removed; finer than meal.
  • CORROSION
    A partial or total loss of a substance due to chemical action; usually induced by acids, salts and alkalis.
  • COSTING
    1. The science of ascertaining the expenditure incurred in making and selling goods and services. 2. Setting a price.
  • COTTONSEED FLOUR
    Flour ground from cottonseeds after removal of oil. Is dark in colour, and is used in some speciality bakery foods, such as biscuits.
  • COTTONSEED OIL
    Edible vegetable oil obtained by extraction from cotton seeds. When partially hydrogenated, the fat is widely used in the making of confectionery and other bakery foods.
  • CREAM
    1. Cream (whipping cream), obtained by separating cow's milk, is rich in fat (approximately 20-35%), 2. A thickened cooked mass of sugar, egg, milk and a thickener used for pies and fillings. 3. To mix or beat (butter and sugar, for example) into a creamy consistency.
  • CREAM OF TARTAR
    Acid tartrate of potassium. Formerly used in baking powders as the acid ingredients. Has largely been replaced in baking powder by other acids. Used at a low level in angel food cake.
  • CREAMY BATTER
    A mixture of butter, margarine or other shortening, sugar, eggs, etc, beaten together to form a light, fluffy, well-aerated mixture. A smooth-appearing batter indicating proper mixing technique (opposite to a curdled batter).
  • CRISPY BREAD
    A round or oval type bread (no baking pan) having a thick crisp crust, sometimes finished with seed or flour topping.
  • CRISPY ROLL
    A round or oval type roll having a thick crisp crust.
  • CROISSANT
    Crescent-shaped roll made by first laminating butter into a fermented dough, as for puff paste manufacture, then flattening with rolling pin, cutting into triangles and rolling to give the traditionally designed roll. These items can be produced mechanically with special equipment.
  • CROUTONS
    Cubes or thin slices of bread fried in hot fat or toasted with oil and seasonings. Also, cubed and dried bread sprayed with oil and seasoned with savoury flavours and herbs. Used for garnishing salads and soups.
  • CRUMB SOFTENER
    Emulsifiers or other additives which retard crumb firming, thereby extending the apparent freshness of bakery products. Crumb softeners generally do not produce a softer fresh bread. Instead, they retard staling (the firming process).
  • CRUSHED WHEAT
    Ingredient prepared by crushing cleaned wheat. Crushed into smaller particles than cracked wheat.
  • CRUST
    Outside surface of baked product, including all of portions caramelised or dehydrated during baking. Pan crust: that part of crust that has come in direct contact with the pan during baking. Top crust: that part of crust above pan and above break.
  • CRYSTALLISATION
    The change from dissolved, molten, liquid or gaseous state, to a solid state of definite ordered and characteristic shape at the molecular level.
  • CULTURED BUTTERMILK
    The product obtained by souring pasteurised, skimmed, or partially skimmed milk by means of a suitable culture of lactic bacteria.
  • CURD
    The coagulated protein of milk produced through the action of rennet or acids.
  • CURDLED
    The appearance of a poorly emulsified batter. Batter has appearance of curdled milk.
  • CURRANT
    1. The acidulous berry of shrubs of the genus Ribes. 2. A small seedless raisin used for baking.
  • CUSTARD
    A dessert or filling containing relatively high levels of whole eggs. The structure (body) of custard depends on the denaturation of egg protein (coagulation) by heat. Typical custard products are custard pie fillings, quiches and most cheesecakes. Under-baking of custard products results in soft centres which tend to crack upon cooling. Over baking produces a tough texture with deep cracks near the edge (rim) of the pies or cakes.
  • CYSTEINE (L-CYSTEINE MONOHYDRATE)
    A naturally occurring amino acid that contains sulphur in addition to the usual constituents carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. It is used in the baking industry, in biscuit making and also in bread making as a reducing agent to soften doughs because of its ability to reduce the mixing requirement for optimum dough development. Normal usage for this purpose is 10 - 45 parts per million, based on flour. It is also permitted in flour up to a maximum level of 30mg/kg.
  • DAMAGED STARCH
    Those starch granules mechanically damaged during milling. The outer coating of these granules is broken (ruptured) and the granules are then susceptible to attack by alpha amylase and beta amylase enzymes. Damaged starch absorbs a greater quantity of water than undamaged starch during dough making. In normal bread flour, 7-14% of the starch granules have been damaged by the milling process.
  • DAMPER
    1. Apparatus to choke a chimney. 2. To control the flow of air through the furnace. 3. To regulate the rate of combustion.
  • DANISH PASTRY
    Fermented dough laminated with butter or margarine, cut out in a variety of ways, filled with almond or hazel-nut fillings, fruit fillings, custard, etc, proofed, baked and usually glazed with thin sugar/ water icing.
  • DATA ESTERS (DATEM)
    DIACETYL TARTARIC ACID ESTERS OF MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES Data esters have excellent dough strengthening characteristics, particularly improvement of loaf volume. Crumb softening effect is secondary to dough strengthening. These esters are commonly called 'datems.' They are also referred to as 'TEMS' in some countries.
  • DATE (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA)
    The very sweet fruit of a species of palm, usually sold and used in a partially dehydrated state.
  • DATE FILLING
    A cooked blend of ground dates, water and sugar.
  • DECORATING TUBES
    Small metal tubes placed inside decorating bags to control the pattern of extruded icings or pastes. Used to produce various shapes and flowers on decorated cakes.
  • DEFATTED SOYA FLOUR
    The flour made from defatted soyabean meal. It has a protein content of at least 50% and is used for nutritional fortification and for its moisture-binding capability in doughnuts and breads.
  • DEHYDRATE
    To remove water from a material. Dehydrated foods are foodstuffs from which water has been removed under conditions that usually reduce bulk and increase keeping properties and do not materially effect product quality.
  • DEPANNER
    Device for automatically removing bread from pans, either by pulling bread from pans with suction cups, or by mechanically inverting the pans, allowing the bread to discharge from them.
  • DEPOSITOR
    A machine that automatically scales or measures quantities of cake batters, biscuit dough, etc and deposits these in or on tins, trays, or moulds. May be deposited by gravity, or by pressure forcing the dough or batter through the depositing orifice.
  • DESSICATE
    To remove water through drying. Dessicated coconut is dried coconut.
  • DEVELOPED DOUGH
    Optimum dough condition obtained from proper mixing, fermentation and ingredients, resulting in bread of maximum volume and other quality factors.
  • DEVELOPER/MIXER
    A dough mixer used to develop the dough to its optimum physical state for bread making.
  • DEVELOPMENT
    An interaction among the various components of a flour to produce a dough of good baking quality. Mixing development refers to the conditioning of the gluten during the mixing process. Fermentation development refers to achieving the proper conditioning of protein, starch and other fractions of the flour during fermentation.
  • DEVIL'S FOOD CAKE
    Chocolate coloured and flavoured cake prepared with cocoa. It generally has a reddish tint.
  • DEXTRINS (MALTODEXTRINS)
    1. A glucose polymer of shorter chain length than the polymer molecules in starch. Dextrins are formed by the degradation of starch using chemicals, amylases, or heat in the presence of an acid. 2. Starch which has been only partially broken into small fractions, usually 20 glucose units or less. If the hydrolysis process were continued, dextrins would be converted to the monosaccharide glucose. Maltodextrins are used as a non-sweet bulking agent or as a carrier for flavours. Maltodextrins have a dextrose equivalent (DE) of less than 20 and are considered 'non-sweet soluble solids'. They are usually offered as 10 to 14 DE or 15 to 19 DE products.
  • DEXTROSE (SIMPLE SUGAR)(C6H12O6) (GLUCOSE)
    A readily fermentable sugar occurring naturally in grapes and various fruits. Known also under the name of glucose. It is the end product of treating cereal starch with acid and/or enzymes. It is also one type of sugar in sucrose (cane or beet sugar), the other being fructose.
  • DIACETYL TARTARIC ACID ESTERS OF MONO AND DIGLYCERIDES
    (See Data Esters)
  • DIASTASE (AMYLASE)
    The name given to a group of amylolytic enzymes found in the various cereals, capable of changing starch into soluble dextrins and fermentable sugar. The group includes alpha amylase, beta amylase and maltase.
  • DIASTATIC ENZYME
    An enzyme capable of causing the hydrolysis of starch, converting the starch to dextrose, ie. diastase.
  • DIASTATIC MALT
    Sprouted grain, usually barley, from which an extract high in diastatic activity is obtained. Maybe in powder or liquid form. Used in bakery foods to provide diastase (amylase) enzyme for break down of starch to maltose. Also contributes malt-like flavour to bakery food.
  • DIRECT FIRED OVEN
    Oven in which the heat source is within the baking chamber, and where products of combustion may come into contact with the product being baked.
  • DISSOLVE
    To cause something to break down into its molecular components. A liquid or compound facilitating this process is called a solvent.
  • DISTILLED MONOGLYCERIDE
    A monoglyceride containing a minimum of 90% active (alpha) monoglyceride. It is a concentrate in powder form produced by a distillation process.
  • DIVIDER
    A machine which separates large masses of dough into smaller weight units. It generally consists of a hopper continuously charged with dough, feeding by gravity into pockets, or vacuum cylinders regulated to deliver constant volumes of dough for further processing. This process is known as scaling.
  • DIVIDER/ ROUNDER
    This piece of equipment divides and rounds the dough in one action. Sometimes referred to as a roll machine or press.
  • DOCKING (BREAD, PIZZA)
    The action of punching holes in or cutting bread dough before baking to prevent splitting or capping and, to control the expansion of the bread during baking without rupturing the crust. In pizza crusts, the action of cutting the dough after sheeting and before adding toppings to prevent blistering. (See Docker)
  • DOUBLE ACTING BAKING POWDER
    Baking powder which contains both a fast acting and a slow acting acid. Provides leavening in the batter to produce thickening and aeration during mixing and to further release gas during baking, producing the final rise or leavening. In RSA, double acting baking powder is used mainly for domestic purposes.
  • DOUBLE LAP OVEN
    A travelling tray oven in which the trays travel back and forth on an endless chain twice during baking. The main advantage of the double lap oven is the use of head room where floor space is limited.
  • DOUGH
    1. The viscous mass of combined ingredients for bread, rolls, biscuits, pies, pizza, yeast-raised sweet dough, etc. 2. A soft mass of moistened flour or meal, and/or other ingredients thick enough to knead or roll.
  • DOUGH CONDITIONER
    An ambiguous term which sometimes refers to a yeast food and sometimes refers to an actual dough improver. An ingredient added to the yeast-raised type dough to improve the processing characteristics and/or the quality of the finished product.
  • DOUGH DEVELOPMENT
    The developing of the gluten matrix or the conditioning of the dough by mechanical mixing to obtain the desired quality.
  • DOUGH HOOK
    An agitator (mixing arm) for a vertical mixer resembling a fish hook in shape. Used to mix bread or sweet doughs.
  • DOUGH SCRAPER
    A square metal or plastic blade with a wooden or plastic handle across one side to protect the hand; used to scrape benches and to cut dough by hand for scaling.
  • DOUGH SHEET
    The daily report of all doughs mixed, their weights, formulas, mixing times, dough temperatures and other pertinent information.
  • DOUGH SHEETER
    Apparatus through which dough pieces are repeatedly passed. Sheeter consists of two steel rollers between which the dough is passed for sheeting instead of rolling by hand with a rolling pin.
  • DOUGH SPLITTER
    Device to cut the top surface of the fully proofed dough longitudinally to facilitate depositing butter before baking. May be mechanical or a jet-like stream of water.
  • DOUGH STRENGTHENER
    An ingredient used to strengthen the gluten protein in dough to improve mixing and machining tolerances and to stabilise and enhance texture, volume and shelf life of the bakery food.
  • DOUGH TEMPERATURES
    Temperature of dough at different stages of processing.
  • DOUGHNUT
    1. A pastry fried to a rich brown colour in fat. Characterised by its shape, a ring with a hole in the centre. The hole facilitates the quick and uniform transfer of heat from the fat to the product. 2. Yeast raised doughnuts are prepared from a medium rich sweet yeast dough, and the fried doughnuts are generally enrobed with a thin sugar glaze or coated with granulated sugar to add sweetness to the product. 3. Cake doughnuts are prepared from chemically leavened batters. These doughnuts have a better shelf life than the yeast-raised variety and are prepared with or without sweet coatings. Popular coatings for cake doughnuts are powdered dextrose, cinnamon-sugar, nut crunches, compound chocolate coatings and flavoured icings. The doughnuts themselves may also be flavoured.
  • DOUGHNUT CUTTER
    The device that divides and shapes the doughnut may be hand or machine (automatic operated).
  • DOUGHNUT FRYER
    Container used to hold and heat the fat for frying doughnuts.
  • DOUGHNUT SYRUP
    A thin transparent coating applied to yeast-raised doughnuts. Prepared by boiling a sugar-water syrup with a stabiliser (such as agar), it is applied to the hot doughnut.
  • DRIED APPLES
    Peeled and cored apples which are dried to low moisture content and available in various size pieces.
  • DRIED EGGS
    Eggs atomised in a drying chamber to remove water. May be dried whole eggs, whites or yolks. Maximum of 5% moisture allowed.
  • DRIED WHEY
    The dried by-product from the manufacture of cheese. This product contains at least 65% lactose (milk sugar). Maximum of 5% moisture allowed.
  • DRY FRUIT
    Fruit from which most of the moisture has been removed to extend shelf life.
  • DRY GLUTEN
    The substance obtained by drying the residue left after washing a quantity of dough until most of the starch is removed. Dry gluten contains approximately 68% protein (73% dry basis), (See Vital Wheat Gluten)
  • DRY MIX
    Ready-prepared ingredients blended in the correct proportions for the production of certain kinds of cakes, pastries and doughs. The ingredients are sometimes specially prepared so that they do not react with each other or become rancid during storage.
  • DRY PACK APPLES
    Peeled and cored apples preserved by a sterilisation process and canned without added water.
  • DUMPING
    The process of removing baked cakes or breads from the pans in which they are baked.
  • DURUM FLOUR
    Flour produced when milling durum wheat. Primarily used for short pasta goods and thickener.
  • DURUM SEMOLINA
    A granular product milled from durum wheat, primarily used for quality pasta products.
  • DURUM WHEAT (TRITICUM DURUM)
    Any of several botanical species; different from most bread wheats. Durum is largely used for making semolina and macaroni. The flour is exceptionally yellow. Is not suitable for bakery foods but is excellent for pasta products such as macaroni and spaghetti.
  • DUSTING
    The process of applying a thin layer or a film of flour or starch to prevent dough or other materials in processing from sticking to the work bench or to the equipment surfaces.
  • DUSTING FLOUR
    Flour used on the bench and on machinery surfaces to prevent dough from sticking to equipment.
  • ÉCLAIR
    Literally 'flash of light.' A finger-shaped choux pastry case, usually filled with whipped cream or similar filling and iced on top with fondant.
  • EGG
    Spheroidal body produced by female birds, particularly domestic fowl, like chickens. It consists of approximately 65% egg white and 35% egg yolk.
  • EGG COLOUR
    Artificial food colouring which, when dissolved in water, can be added to doughs and batters to imitate the colour of egg yolks.
  • EGG WASH
    Beaten eggs or a mixture of eggs and milk used for glazing of dough products before baking. Produces a glossy surface on the baked product.
  • EGG WHITE
    The natural, pale-yellow, transparent, viscous part of the egg, containing about 87% water, 1% carbohydrate, 11% protein and a small percentage of mineral matter. The white represents roughly 65% of the weight of a chicken egg.
  • EGG YOLK
    Much richer than the white, the yolk contains approximately 17% protein and 33% fat, the remainder consisting of water, mineral matter, etc. Egg yolk contains the important emulsion stabilisers, lecithin and cholesterol.
  • ELASTIC DOUGH
    A dough which tends to return to its original shape after stretching.
  • ELASTICITY
    1. That property of a material by which it tends to recover its original shape after release from a deforming force. 2. Degree (or amount) to which a material can be quickly deformed and still substantially recover its original shape.
  • EMBOSSING MACHINE (DIE CUT)
    The biscuit dough is compressed into carved impressions or moulds on a circular drum and withdrawn by suction against a canvas belt. The biscuits are thus embossed with the patterns of the moulds.
  • EMULSIFIER
    A substance added to increase the ease of blending fat-soluble with water-soluble ingredients in making food products. This surface-active substance is used to reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil. In baking applications, an emulsifier is often used to hold together the fat-soluble phase and the water-soluble phase. Examples of types of molecules that are surface-active are mono- and diglycerides and polyglycerol esters.
  • ENDOSPERM
    That part of the seed in which the bulk of energy is stored for the germination of the new plant. The endosperm of wheat is milled into white flour.
  • ENGLISH MUFFINS
    Round yeast-raised products, approximately 70 to 100 millimetres in diameter and about 25mm thick. Made from a high absorption (85%-90%) dough, having a short fermentation period. Baked on a griddle. Characterised by an open, porous structure and chewiness.
  • ENZYME
    An organic catalyst of animal or vegetable origin. Enzymes have, even in very small quantities, the ability to break down or synthesise large quantities of complex substances. Enzymes change the rate of a reaction without any change in the structure of the enzyme.
  • ENZYME ACTIVE SOYA FLOUR
    Enzyme active full fat soya flour which has been processed to retain its lipoxidase enzyme activity. Used in bread doughs to produce whiter bread crumb through oxidation of carotenoid pigments in flour.
  • EXTENSIBILITY
    Degree (or amount) to which a material can be stretched or extended without rupture by applying tension or pressure. Dough extensibility is an important criterion of bread-making quality.
  • FAHRENHEIT (OF)
    A temperature scale based upon the freezing point (32°) and the boiling point (212°) of water at one atmosphere pressure.
  • FAIRY CAKE
    Small cake made from Madeira batter and baked in muffin pans, decorated with fudge icing.
  • FALLING NUMBER
    1. A laboratory device used to measure the level of alpha-amylase (diastatic) activity in flour. 2. The number in seconds provided by the Falling Number test, indicating the level of diastatic activity in a flour. A falling number of 400 to 500 indicates low activity; 250 to 275 is a good level of activity for bread production.
  • FARINA
    A very pure wheat endosperm, about the granulation of medium sizings. (Larger particle size than flour.)
  • FARINOGRAPH
    An instrument used to measure the plasticity and certain other physical characteristics of a dough at a constant temperature. Also gives an absorption value for flour.
  • FAT
    A chemical constituent of plant or animal tissues comprised of esters of various fatty acids and glycerol (triglycerides). In cereal technology, it may refer to the natural flour fat or the fat (shortening) that is included in the bread formula. A fat has the same type of composition as an oil, the primary difference being that a fat has a higher melting point than an oil and is a plastic - solid at room temperature (a fat usually contains more saturated fatty acids than an oil).
  • FAT ABSORPTION
    Amount of fat absorbed into an item when deep fat fried.
  • FERMENT
    1. To undergo fermentation. 2. A mixture of water, yeast, yeast nutrients, and sometimes flour that is allowed to ferment for 1 to 3 hours (to produce flavour and substance and condition the flour prior to being used for production of bread dough). Often called liquid ferment or brew. (See Flour Ferment)
  • FERMENTABLE SOLIDS
    The components of ingredients in a yeast-raised dough which are fermentable, or capable of being broken down by the yeast into carbon dioxide and alcohol.
  • FERMENTATION
    Metabolism of organic substances (sugar) by micro-organisms, to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide (gas). In bread making, fermentation is used to leaven (raise) the dough and to produce substances that are important to bread flavour.
  • FERMENTATION LOSS
    A term used in the baking industry to describe the loss in weight of the dough during the fermentation period. It is usually expressed in percent. The losses are the result of the conversion by yeast of some of the flour solids and sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol.
  • FERMENTATION PERIOD OR TIME
    In the baking industry, fermentation period or time is the time required for optimum conditioning of the dough through the physical and chemical changes occurring from biological activity, such as yeast action, to produce the optimum bakery food. Fermentation period is affected by the character and quantity of the various dough ingredients and by temperature and humidity.
  • FERMENTED GOODS
    Bread, rolls, buns and other goods aerated by yeast.
  • FIBRE
    A group of flour carbohydrates that are not digested by human digestive enzymes. 'Crude fibre', a term now rarely used, measures only two fibre components, namely cellulose and lignin. When another flour component, namely hemicellulose, is also measured along with cellulose and lignin, this is termed 'Neutral Detergent Fibre' (NDF). NDF is insoluble in water. When water-soluble fibre components like pectins and gums are also measured along with insoluble components, this fibre is termed 'total dietary fibre' (TOP). Total dietary fibre is the classification most commonly used in determining the fibre content of bakery foods.
  • FIG
    A pear-shaped fruit of the fig tree, Ficus carica. It is generally used in the baking industry as a partially dehydrated paste for fillings.
  • FILLING CREAM
    Any light creamy mixture, such as butter cream, marshmallow cream, whipped cream, artificial or synthetic cream used for filling cakes, pastries, etc.
  • FILLINGS
    Sweet creams, jams, etc, placed between baked layers in cakes or yeast-raised goods, or injected into snack cakes.
  • FILTER
    Apparatus for separating suspended solids from liquids by passing the mixture through a filter, paper, cloth, etc.
  • FINAL PROOF
    The last operation before bread, buns or other yeast-raised doughs are placed in the oven to bake. During this period, the dough is once more leavened with gas by the action of yeast, converting sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Unless enough sugar is present, final proof may be insufficient for good volume production.
  • FINISHING DEPARTMENT
    A part of the bakery production department where the baked products are prepared for distribution to the shops. This may include fillings, icings, toppings or coatings, as well as packaging of the bakery goods.
  • FLAT ICING
    A mixture of sugar, stabiliser and water. Flavouring and shortening may also be added. Normally used for icing sweet cinnamon rolls.
  • FLAVOUR
    1. A combination of taste and odour characteristic of foods; that quality of anything which effects odour or taste. 2. An extract, emulsion, or spice used to produce a pleasant taste.
  • FLAVOURING EXTRACT
    A solution in ethyl alcohol in proper strength of the flavourful and odorous principals derived from an aromatic plant, or parts of the plant, with or without its colouring matter, conforming in name to the plant used in its preparation. Example: almond extract, vanilla extract, etc.
  • FLOOR TIME
    Refers to the actual time, generally expressed in minutes, between the moment the dough is removed from the mixer until it is transferred to the divider or depositor. Normally the dough is allowed to ferment in bulk during this time.
  • FLOUR
    A finely ground, purified material from the seed or fruit of various plants. Purification process depends on the source, but usually consists of removing the outer, fibrous coating through a gradual milling process.
  • FLOUR COLOUR
    The degree of whiteness of flour; maybe measured with an Agtron Colour Instrument, or a Kent-Jones or Martin Colour Grader. Usually measures the amount of bran particles in the flour, and provides some indication of the percent extraction. Also indicates whether the flour has been bleached.
  • FLYING SPONGE
    Used in a sponge and dough bread-making process. Unlike an ordinary sponge, the flying sponge is allowed to ferment for a comparatively short period, usually less than 2 hours.
  • FOAM TYPE CAKES
    Cakes prepared from batters leavened with air which has been whipped into the egg protein. These cakes may contain a small percentage of leavening agents and are usually made without shortening.
  • FOLD (OR TURN)
    The operation of producing layers of fat between layers of dough in making puff pastry, croissants, or flaky Danish pastries.
  • FOLDING
    1. A term used by bakers for expressing the action of carefully incorporating the dry ingredients into a wet mix. Example: folding dry ingredients into egg white mixture to make biscuits. 2. Forming two, three, or more layers of dough with fat layers in between, made from a single dough sheet by bending and doubling a position of the dough with a layer of fat between the layers of dough.
  • FONDANT
    Low moisture content sugar syrup which is produced by heating a concentrated sugar solution to boiling, then cooling gradually with controlled mixing, which causes sugar to precipitate as fine crystals suspended in a saturated sugar solution. Typical analysis is 82% sucrose and 18% water. Used for fine icings and similar toppings.
  • FORMULA
    In baking, a recipe stating the type and amount of ingredients, amounts to be used for the food, as well as the method of combining the ingredients.
  • FORMULA BALANCE
    A term used to express the proper proportion of ingredients in cake or bread formula - a measure to keep the cake or bread in balance to produce the desired product. Baked goods possess tenderising and toughening agents which must be used in proper percentage (all proportions are based on flour as 100 percent). (See Baker's Percent.)
  • FREE FATTY ACIDS
    Free acids that have been cleaved from the main fat molecule. Indicators for proper refining and degree of breakdown of frying fats during use. An important factor in shortening specification.
  • FREEZER BURN
    The result of the migration of moisture in the frozen dough causing the surface of the product to dry out as well as change in colour or appearance. Maybe reduced through the use of proper packaging and the maintenance of proper freezer temperature.
  • FRENCH BREAD
    An unsweetened crusty bread containing little or no shortening, sugar or milk and baked on a flat surfaced pan or on oven sale.
  • FRICTION
    The resisting force between two adjacent bodies moving at different speeds or in opposite directions.
  • FRIED PIE
    Small (usually about 50 grams) pie made by placing small amount of fruit or cream filling on one half of a flat pie crust, folding the unfilled half over the filled portion and sealing, then frying in hot fat instead of baking. After baking, the pie is covered with a very light glaze
  • FROSTING
    A sweet coating used for cakes and pastries to improve their appearance and taste appeal.
  • FRUCTOSE (LEVULOSE)
    A fermentable monosaccharide sugar found in sweet fruits and in honey; also called fruit sugar, and levulose. Sucrose inverts to glucose (dextrose) and fructose in a fermenting yeast dough through action of the yeast enzyme, invertase.
  • FRUITCAKE
    A cake containing large amounts of candied or partially dehydrated fruit and nuts with only enough cake batter to bind them together.
  • FRUIT PIE
    A two crust (top and bottom) pie having a fruit and fruit juice filling, the juice being thickened with special starches.
  • FRY
    To cook or bake in hot fat.
  • FRYER
    Apparatus used to fry doughnuts or other food products.
  • FRYING
    In the baking industry, baking by submerging the product in deep fat, or baking while floating in hot fat (doughnuts).
  • FUDGE
    Soft toffee-like sweetmeat, recrystallised by the addition of a small quantity of fondant or by rapid agitation before pouring into frame to set.
  • FUDGE ICING
    A heavy non-aerated icing prepared from icing sugar or fondant and vegetable oil or melted shortening.
  • FULL FAT SOYA FLOUR
    Flour made from soyabeans without removal of fat. Soya flour enhances nutritional value and improves crumb and tasting qualities of baked goods.
  • FULL PROOF
    After a loaf or bun has been shaped, it is allowed to rest for a time during which yeast action again fills the dough cells with gas, causing them to expand. If allowed to remain undisturbed, a point could be reached when the maximum volume is obtained after which the gas leaks away and the piece of dough collapses. Just prior to this point, the dough is said to have reached full proof. Example: the greatest volume obtainable without any collapsing occurring during baking.
  • FUMIGATION
    The process of applying chemical vapour to kill insects and to interrupt their reproduction.
  • FUNGAL AMYLASE
    Amylase enzymes derived from a mould. In baking, generally the mould aspergillus oryzae is used as a source of the amylase. It is destroyed at a lower temperature than cereal amylase.
  • FUNGUS
    Any of the simplest forms of plants lacking chlorophyll and reproducing almost entirely by spores. Moulds are fungi.
  • GALACTOSE
    A simple reducing sugar derived from milk sugar (lactose) through hydrolysis, either by enzymes or acids.
  • GEL
    1. A firm, semi-rigid colloidal suspension, such as a cooled starch paste, that resembles gelatin or jelly. 2. To form a gel.
  • GELATINE
    A protein substance obtained from animal tissues, particularly from cartilage, bone, hoof and horn. Is used primarily as a stabiliser in some icings and fillings to bind water.
  • GERM
    The embryo extracted from grain kernels. Is high in fat and some vitamins.
  • GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE)
    The spicy root of a tropical plant used for flavouring.
  • GINGER CAKE
    A cake flavoured with ginger and other spices. The difference between a gingerbread and a ginger cake is that the former is made from dough while the latter is made from a batter.
  • GINGERBREAD
    Sweet bread or biscuit flavoured with ground ginger and other spices.
  • GLACE
    1. Sugar treated so as to look like ice. 2. Iced, glossy or lustrous. Glace fruits are those preserved in syrup so that they are glossy. 3. Fancy or candied fruits.
  • GLAZE
    A transparent coating that is applied to baked products for sealing in moisture to give it a glossy appearance, or to add flavour and sweetness.
  • GLUTATHIONE
    A reducing substance present in wheat germ and also released from dead or ruptured yeast cells. Has an adverse effect on bread quality, affecting the gluten. Reduces mixing time and results in soft, sticky doughs having poor gas retention.
  • GLUTEN
    A combination of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin. These two components interact when wheat flour is mixed with water through mechanical agitation. Rubber-like strands are formed, which provide bread doughs with elasticity and extensibility.
  • GLUTENIN
    A protein found in the endosperm of wheat which gives gluten its strength. It is insoluble in 70% alcohol, but soluble in dilute alkalis or acids.
  • GLYCERINE (GLYCEROL)
    A sweet liquid polyalcohol obtained by the hydrolysis of fats. It is used in bakery foods as a humectant and crystallisation modifier.
  • GLYCEROL MONOSTEARATE (GMS)
    The monoglyceryl ester of stearic acid which has emulsification power. It is used as an emulsion stabiliser, and as a crumb softener in bread and cakes.
  • GRADE (OF FLOUR)
    The term used to denote the quality or percentage of flour extracted from wheat during the milling process.
  • GRAIN
    1. The appearance of the crumb of baked products as determined by the number and size of air pockets, the cell structure and the thickness of cell walls. 2. In botany, a seed of a cereal.
  • GRAM (g)
    In the metric system, the unit of weight equal to the weight of one cubic centimetre of purewater at 4°C.
  • GRANULAR
    Appearing to be composed of granules or grains; grainy.
  • GRANULATED
    A mixture of crystallised particle sizes obtained from the refining of raw sugar.
  • GRANULATION
    Particle size distribution of a material. The relative granulation can be determined by the use of various sieves having specified mesh sizes.
  • GRAPHITE
    Carbon in the form of a crystalline black powder. Graphite is a good lubricant where oils are unsuitable, i.e. in the mechanism of a lock or in oven chains.
  • GRAVITY FEED DEPOSITOR
    One in which batter is fed into the cutter by gravity only, without mechanical force.
  • GREASE
    A viscous fat or oil.
  • GREASING
    Spreading a film of fat on a surface or between two or more objects to reduce friction between them.
  • GREASY
    1. Smeared, covered with, or containing too much grease. 2. A food which leaves a fatty coating in the mouth or on the skin when eaten or touched.
  • GREEN FLOUR
    Property of a freshly milled flour which requires more oxidation or longer mixing or fermentation than normal to avoid production of underdeveloped dough.
  • GRITS
    Refers to hulled and coarsely ground and degerminated maize, oats, soyabeans or wheat.
  • GROATS
    Dehulled (sometimes also crushed) grains, usually oats.
  • GUAR
    A gum obtained from the seed of the guar plant, Cyanopsis psoraioides. Has very high water absorbing and binding capacity. When dispersed in cold water, hydrates rapidly to very high viscosity. It is used in bakery foods as a thickener or stabiliser for fillings, toppings, batters, etc.
  • GUM
    Any of numerous colloidal polysaccharide substances that are gelatinous when moist but harden on drying. They are exuded by plants or extracted from them by solvents. They are either soluble in or swell up with water. Are used as stabilisers of water and viscosity control in many food systems.
  • GUM ARABIC
    A gum obtained from species of acacia trees, especially Acacia senegal and Acacia arabica, and used as a thickener and stabiliser. Imparts a smooth surface film to icings and glazes; also helps to control sugar crystallisation in icing.
  • GUM TRAGACANTH
    A gum from plants of the genus Astragalus, used to provide viscosity and stability to systems such as icings and fillings.
  • GYPSUM (CaS042H2O)
    Calcium sulphate. Added to doughs to improve flour performance if water is very soft. Frequently one of the constituents of yeast food. Also used as a source of calcium for enriched bakery foods.
  • HAMBURGER ROLL (BUN)
    A soft round roll about 10 cm in diameter and usually about 3.5 cm thick. Made from yeast-leavened dough with more sugar, shortening and gluten than in white bread. Also usually made with high protein flour. Bun is sliced, and cooked ground beef (hamburger) or other meat is placed between the two slices to make a sandwich.
  • HAND WHISK
    A small wire whisk used to aerate or blend batters by hand.
  • HARD BALL DEGREE
    In sugar boiling, this condition is reached at around 121°C.
  • HARD BUTTER
    A fat with a high solids content when at temperatures of 27°C or lower and a narrow melting range (in the 32°C to 38°C). Hardbutters are used in candy coatings, dairy replacement products and similar foods.
  • HARD CRACK DEGREE
    In sugar boiling this condition is reached at 138-154° C.
  • HARD RED SPRING WHEAT
    A class of wheat which is grown in cooler climates than winter wheats. Spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in late summer. The 'hard' wheats are best suited for bread flours because of the protein quality and content that assure good gas retention capabilities.
  • HARD RED WINTER WHEAT
    A class of wheat which is planted in the autumn or early winter and harvested in late spring or early summer. The 'hard' wheats are best suited for bread flours because of the protein quality and content that assure good gas retention capabilities.
  • HARD WHEAT FLOUR
    That which is strong in character and has considerable fermentation tolerance and stability. Hard wheat flour is produced from hard red winter, hard red spring, or hard white wheat and is generally used for production of yeast-raised baking foods.
  • HIGH FIBRE BREAD
    Bread products in which the total dietary fibre has been greatly increased through the use of fibre concentrates from the outer coatings of such grains as wheat, oats, barley, peas, rice, maize and flax.
  • HIGH FRUCTOSE MAIZE SYRUP
    (HFMS) A purified aqueous solution, containing dextrose and fructose molecules, derived from the isomerisation of the glucose in maize syrup to fructose by the enzyme glucose isomerase. Glucose may be partially or totally isomerised to fructose. Common grades are 42%, 55% and 90% fructose. (Not used in RSA)
  • HIGH RATIO CAKE
    The term applies to cakes containing unusually high percentages of sugar and liquids. To produce satisfactory cakes from such formulas, specially hydrogenated shortenings and special flours are needed. Usually refers to cakes in which the weight of sugar exceeds flour weight.
  • HIGH RATIO CAKE FLOUR
    Suitable for making high ratio cakes, it is milled from soft wheat. It is of a very high grade: its gluten content is approximately 7 - 9 percent and the pH is lowered to 5.2 or lower by treating with chlorine.
  • HIGH RATIO SHORTENING
    A shortening produced for use in high ratio cakes through the inclusion of emulsifiers such as polysorbate 60, glyceryl monostearate and monoglycerides.
  • HIGH SPEED MIXER
    A popular term for mechanical mixers, such as the horizontal and vertical mixers (mixing arms on a horizontal or vertical axis). However, in the 1970s and early 1980s, new styles of mixers entered the market, which used much higher speeds (2 to 10 or more times the R.P.M of other mechanical mixers). Today, high speed mixers having a much higher R.P.M. are available.
  • HONEY
    A unique liquid sweetener derived from the nectar of flowers by honey bees. The nectar is inverted to its constituents (fructose, dextrose) by the action of invertase and other enzymes supplied by the bee. The nectar source determines the various flavours and aromas, which, when included in baked products, lend variety and uniqueness. A robust flavour is usually associated with amber-coloured honeys, a milder flavour with lighter coloured varieties. Hygroscopic qualities extend shelf life of baked products.
  • HOPPER
    A container above the depositing machine to hold the dough or batter until the time of depositing. Also, container above any equipment to hold material until ready for depositing. Example: flour hopper above dough mixer.
  • HORIZONTAL MIXER
    Used for mixing batters or doughs, the arms are horizontal and revolve in a trough-like container. Owing to the danger of such machines, they are constructed so that they cannot be operated until the lid or cover of the trough is moved into position to enclose the mixture and the beaters.
  • HORSEPOWER (HP)
    The unit of power equal to 33,000 foot-pounds of work per minute. 1.34 h.p. =1 kilowatt and 1 h.p. =1.014 metric horsepower.
  • HOT CROSS BUNS
    Sweet, spicy, fruity buns with crosses piped on top with a crossing paste, glazed after baking. They are most popular at Easter time.
  • HOTDOG ROLL
    Yeast-raised dough, sweeter than white bread, weighing approximately 60 grams, has an elongated form and is used as a sandwich with a sausage.
  • HUMIDIFIER
    A machine that regulates the moisture in the air in a fermentation room or proofing cabinet by spraying the proper moisture as a fine mist into the chamber.
  • HUMIDITY
    The amount of water vapour or moisture contained in the air.
  • HYDRATION
    The absorption or uptake of water by solid materials, eg flour. In bread making, two aspects of hydration are important: the total amount absorbed (hydration capacity) by the flour and the rate at which it is absorbed (rate of hydration).
  • HYDROGENATED OIL
    An oil from an animal or a vegetable source that has been treated with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst. This process removes the double bonds in the fatty acids of the oil and thus hardens and stabilises the oil.
  • HYDROGENATED SHORTENING
    Fats which have reacted chemically with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst. Hydrogenation reduces the degree of unsaturation of the fat and results in an increased resistance to rancidity and an increased melting point.
  • HYDROLYSIS
    1. Process of splitting a molecule into smaller parts through the interaction of water. Example: hydrolysis of starch into sugars or of proteins into amino acids. 2. Reaction of water with fat; a breaking down of the fat into free fatty acids and glycerine. Hydrolysis of heated fats causes excessive smoking when heated (such as in doughnut fryers).
  • HYGROSCOPIC
    A term applied to substances which absorb and retain moisture from the air. Examples of hygroscopic substances are honey, high fructose maize syrup, and invert sugar. When added to bakery goods these materials cause the baked product to retain moisture and thus stay soft (fresh) longer.
  • ICE
    1. Water solidified by freezing. Example: by lowering the temperature to or below 0°C. 2. To frost or put an icing or frosting on a bakery food.
  • ICING
    A mixture of sugar with other ingredients used for coating cakes, sweet goods, doughnuts and some biscuits. Royal icing or glaze consists of beaten egg whites and icing sugar with or without the addition of colours. A small amount of acid, as a rule acetic, is usually added to facilitate aeration. Other icings for sweet goods may be made up of sugar, water, stabilisers and fat.
  • ICING SCREEN
    A screen on which cakes or doughnuts are placed after having been enrobed with or dipped in a flat or liquid type icing so that excess icing may be drained off and returned for re-use.
  • ICING SUGAR
    A fine powder obtained by grinding granulated sugar normally containing an anti-caking agent (example maize starch),
  • IMMATURE DOUGH (YOUNG DOUGH)
    Dough without sufficient fermentation. Will feel somewhat sticky and will produce bread deficient in volume and flavour, with an irregular texture, and with a dark, reddish-brown crust.
  • IMPINGEMENT OVEN
    A recirculating heat oven using externally located burners. The heated air is brought into the baking chamber by means of fans and air ducts and is forced on the product through slotted tubes laid out in patterns. These slotted tubes form well defined perpendicular air currents through which the baking product passes as it travels through the baking chamber on a conveyor.
  • IMPROVING AGENT
    Any substance that is added to flour or to dough or batter to improve its performance during processing and to improve the quality of the bakery food.
  • INFRA-RED OVEN
    An oven which uses energy in the infra-red frequency range. Such energy is absorbed directly by the material to be heated without heating the surrounding air.
  • INSTANT DRY YEAST
    Special strains of yeast, extruded to small particles and dried under special conditions in a fluidised bed drier to a moisture content of 4-6%. The product is very unstable and needs to be packed under vacuum or an inert gas such as nitrogen in order to protect its activity during storage. Due to its small particle size it rehydrates easily and it must therefore be added directly to the other dry bakery ingredients.
  • INTERMEDIATE PROOF (OVERHEAD)
    The stage in the bread-making process where the dough is allowed to rest (relax) for a short period of time between the dividing/rounding step and moulding step. Also referred to as overhead proof.
  • INTERMEDIATE PROOFER (OVERHEAD PROOFER)
    Equipment in which rounded pieces of dough are placed in travelling cups for relaxation between dividing and sheeting. Sometimes called overhead proofer because equipment is usually placed above the equipment and near the ceiling. Time in the proofer ranges from 5 to 12 minutes.
  • INVERSION
    Substitute - A popular name for hydrolysis (splitting) of sucrose into its monosaccharide components. The parent sucrose 'twists' polarised light 'to the right', whereas the hydrolysis products (glucose and fructose) have a combined effect of twisting the light 'to the left'. Hence the direction of twist is inverted when sucrose is hydrolysed and we tend to talk about inversion and invert sugars (glucose and fructose). Inversion can be accomplished by acid or enzyme, as in the case of invert syrup, or by enzyme action as in a yeast dough.
  • INVERT SYRUP
    A syrup containing a mixture of dextrose and fructose. It is made by treating cane or beet sugar with dilute acid solutions or enzymes (invertase). Conversion of sucrose to dextrose and fructose may be partial or complete. Example A: In medium invert syrup, the solids are 50% sucrose, 25% dextrose, and 25% fructose. Example B: The solids in total invert syrup are 5% sucrose, 47.5% dextrose and 47.5% fructose.
  • INVERTASE
    An enzyme associated with yeast and other organisms. It is capable of inverting cane sugar in a yeast dough into invert sugar (dextrose and fructose).
  • IODISED SALT
    Sodium chloride to which a small amount of potassium iodide has been added to prevent a potential nutritional deficiency of iodine which could lead to goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  • JAM
    Cooked confection consisting of fruit and sugar. It usually has a sufficiently high concentration of sugar to prevent fermentation.
  • JELLY
    A combination of fruit juice and sugar, hardened by the action of the sugar on the pectin in the fruit.
  • JELLY CRYSTALS (OR POWDER)
    A dry blend of powdered gelatine, starch or stabilisers, sugar, dry colours and soluble flavouring powders requiring only the addition of hot water to produce a solution that will set as a jelly when cold.
  • JOULE
    An S.I unit of energy which equates to the force of one newton applied over one metre.
  • KAISER ROLL
    Variously shaped Vienna bread rolls resembling an emperor's crown. However, the rosette-shaped roll is more correctly termed Kaiser Semmel (crispy roll). These rolls, which were always rather difficult to shape by hand, can now be mechanically produced at a great speed by cutting (stamping) the pattern.
  • KARAYA GUM
    A gum extracted from the Sterculia urens tree. Swells to form a viscous gel when heated in water. It is used for viscosity control and stabilising in some bakery foods, such as toppings.
  • KERNEL
    A seed within a husk or shell; the substance inside the shell of a nut. The kernel of the wheat berry consists of the endosperm, bran and germ.
  • KERNEL PASTE
    A paste consisting of ground apricot kernels and sugar.
  • KILOGRAM (KILO [Kg])
    A weight unit in the metric system equal to 1000 grams. To convert pounds to kilos, multiply the weight in pounds by 0.454.
  • KNEAD
    To work or punch together as when making or knocking back a piece of dough. Developing a dough by vigorous manipulation.
  • KNEADER
    Machine capable of mixing and 'developing' a dough.
  • KNOCK-BACK
    The operation that occurs midway through the period of bulk fermentation of a dough consisting of kneading, turning, folding, punching, etc, by which most of the gas is expelled, and fermentation is rejuvenated. The knocking back of a dough not only invigorates the yeast but improves the texture of the bread.
  • KNOCKDOWN
    To expel the gas from bread doughs by 'punching' with the hands. Manual degassing of fermented doughs.
  • LACTASE
    An enzyme which acts upon lactose, splitting it into dextrose and galactose.
  • LACTIC ACID BACTERIA
    Bacteria capable of fermenting lactose or milk sugar to form lactic acid. These organisms are responsible for the souring of milk. They also play an important part in developing bread flavour.
  • LACTOSE
    A disaccharide sugar found in milk which is nonfermentable by yeast.
  • LAMINATING
    Layering of dough, generally achieved by separating the dough layers with continuous fat layers, accomplished by a sheeting and folding procedure.
  • LARD
    The rendered fat from pork.
  • LAYER CAKE
    Cake composed of a number of layers of variously (or similarly) coloured and flavoured high ratio cake, sandwiched with icing, filling, jam, etc, and usually decorated with icings of numerous types.
  • LEAN DOUGH
    A dough that contains little or no sugar, milk and shortening.
  • LEATHERY CRUST
    Crust which is not crisp and brittle, but tough and rubbery. This may be caused by baking in an excessively humid oven or by storing in a non-permeable package (moisture in crumb migrates to the crust).
  • LEAVENING
    The process of producing gas in a dough or batter. This may be done by micro-organisms (yeast) or through the action of chemical agents. These gases then expand during baking, causing the dough or batter to expand (rise).
  • LEAVENING AGENTS
    1. Substances which react with each other to produce gases before or during the baking process. 2. Materials which, through biological activity, produce gases during fermentation (yeast).
  • LECITHIN
    A phospholipid which functions as an emulsion stabiliser. Fat in egg yolks and soya beans are rich in lecithin. It is also a mild antioxidant and bread crumb softener, which is used in cookies to effect release from the baking surface. It is an active ingredient in some pan release agents, and it also facilitates the flow of compound and chocolate coatings.
  • LEMON
    Fruit of citrus limonum. Its juice contains 4-8 percent of citric acid and it is rich in vitamin C.
  • LINSEED
    The seed of the flax plant, used in health breads.
  • LIPASE
    An enzyme that splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
  • LIPIDS
    General term embracing fats, oils and waxes.
  • LIPOPROTEIN
    A compound in which fatty acids are combined with protein.
  • LIPOXIDASE (LIPOXYGENASE)
    An enzyme found in soya flour. When added to bread dough it bleaches the carotenoid pigments in the flour, producing a whiter crumb in the bakery food.
  • LIQUEUR
    1. Strong alcoholic liquid sweetened and flavoured with aromatic substances and usually consumed in very small amounts. 2. A liquefied substance, such as chocolate liqueur.
  • LIQUID
    A substance that, unlike a solid, flows readily but, unlike a gas, does not expand indefinitely.
  • LIQUID MEASURE
    Measuring a liquid by volume rather than by weight.
  • LIQUID SPONGE OR BREW SYSTEM (PREFERMENT)
    Dough system in which primary sponge fermentation is carried out in a liquid (fluid) medium. Ratio of water to flour is 1.1:1 or greater. (See Batter: Sponge, Brew)
  • LIQUID SUCROSE
    Cane or beet sugar solids in aqueous solution, usually referred to as 67% solids.
  • LITRE
    One thousand millilitres (ml). The standard measure of capacity in the metric system. The space occupied by 1000 grams of water at 4°C.
  • LOCUST BEAN GUM
    A gum extracted from the seed of the locust bean tree, Ceratonia Siliqua, also called Carob tree or St. John's bread tree. It produces high viscosity when used in such bakery products as icings, fillings and batters.
  • LOW AND REDUCED KILOJOULE BREADS
    Breads in which the kilojoule content has been greatly decreased through the use of non-nutritive substances (such as food fibres) and increased water.
  • LYSINE
    An amino acid essential in the diet of human beings. Wheat and wheat flour contain a relatively low level of lysine.
  • MAC MICHAEL VISCOMETER
    Instrument used in measuring viscosity of flour in dilute lactic acid. It is a standard measurement in soft wheat flour specifications. May provide some indication of acceptability of flour for a specific· biscuit, cake or cracker application.
  • MACAROON PASTE
    A mixture of ground almonds (or almond marzipan) and sugar.
  • MACAROONS
    Small biscuits made from coconut or almond paste, sugar and egg whites.
  • MACE
    The Arillus or reddish-brown envelope surrounding the nutmeg. Ground mace is used extensively in the preparation of foods and has a somewhat different flavour from nutmeg. (See Nutmeg)
  • MADEIRA CAKE
    A rich cake baked in deep, oblong pans originally made from equal amounts of flour, butter, sugar and fresh eggs. Today, many Madeira cakes are made with a higher proportion of sugar and less fat and eggs. These cakes are generally leavened with baking powder.
  • MAILLARD BROWNING REACTION
    Reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars under the influence of high temperatures, producing colour and flavour compounds such as those found in the crust of bread. The Maillard reaction occurs at lower temperatures than caramelisation of sugar and proceeds more rapidly at a higher pH.
  • MAIZE MEAL
    A coarse meal made by grinding maize after removal of the bran and germ.
  • MAIZE MUFFIN
    Sweet, chemical-leavened muffin containing maize flour or meal, usually blended with wheat flour. Baked in a small round pan, such as a cookie pan.
  • MAIZE OIL
    Edible oil produced from maize. Has typical mild flavour. Is one of the oils used for making oleomargarines, and is used in bakery foods.
  • MAIZE STARCH
    Starch resembling a fine white flour made from the endosperm of the corn and used chiefly in foods as a thickening agent. It may be pre-gelatinised and/or modified. It is produced by a wet milling process in which the starch is separated, purified and dried.
  • MAIZE SYRUP
    Sugar produced by the gelatinisation and saccharification of maize starch. Maize syrup is made up of glucose (dextrose), maltose, and higher saccharides and contains 70% to 80% solids. Degree of conversion to glucose and maltose is indicated by dextrose equivalent (DE). Maize syrup has a DE of 20 or more.
  • MALT
    Grain, usually barley, that has been partially germinated under controlled conditions and dried at a low temperature. Malt has a high diastatic activity and thus finds use in the baking and brewing industries. (See Malt Flour)
  • MALT EXTRACT
    The syrup obtained by evaporation of an extract of malt. It may or may not have a high diastatic action, depending on the method of its manufacture and the purpose for which it is intended.
  • MALT FLOUR
    A flour milled from grain which has been sprouted to increase the activity of the diastatic (starch converting) enzymes. This flour is added to bread-type flours in small quantities (less than 1%) to improve fermentation. Usually made from wheat or barley.
  • MALTASE
    Enzyme in yeast that converts maltose sugar into glucose (dextrose).
  • MALTING
    1. The process of sprouting grain to produce malt. 2. The process of adding malt flour or fungal amylase to freshly milled flour at the mill to raise the diastatic activity to a desired level.
  • MALTOSE
    A disaccharide sugar obtained by the action of amylases on starch. It is comprised of two glucose units.
  • MAPLE SYRUP (MAPLE SUGAR)
    Is prepared by evaporating the sap from a maple tree (Acersaccharinum). It is sweet and palatable and is used as a flavouring ingredient.
  • MARASCHINO CHERRIES
    Artificially coloured red cherries aged in maraschino liqueur.
  • MARBLE CAKE
    Cake baked from two or three coloured batters, blended together slightly, in order to obtain a multicoloured or marbled effect in the finished cake.
  • MARGARINE
    A standardised food product often used as a substitute for butter. It is made from a blend of refined vegetable oils (sunflower seed oil and ground nut oil) to which other ingredients (salt, water, milk solid, flavours, vitamin A and vitamin D) are added and blended by rotating to facilitate spreading.
  • MARSHMALLOW
    A white confection of meringue-like consistency made mainly from water, gelatine and sometimes egg white.
  • MARZIPAN
    Coarse sugar crystals and freshly blanched almonds ground together between rollers or in a melangeur until perfectly smooth. The mixture is heated during the grinding process. When finished it is a smooth, homogeneous, plastic paste. Raw marzipan is 2/3 almonds and 1/3 sugar by weight. Before use, more sugar should be added for proper handling and flavour.
  • MATURING AGENT
    Any substance, usually a chemical (example: azodicarbonamide [ADA]), that is added to flour or dough to improve the bread-making quality of the flour. It is added to replace natural ageing of the flour.
  • MEALIEMEAL
    Coarse granular particles of maize grain from which practically all of the bran and germ have been removed.
  • MELTING POINT
    The temperature at which a substance (example: a fat) melts or becomes liquid.
  • MERINGUE
    Egg whites whipped to a stiff foam or frothy condition and blended with sugar. Three types are common - cold, hot and Italian.
  • METABOLISM
    Physical and chemical processes involved in the maintenance of life. The breakdown of nutrients by enzymes to produce energy or support life.
  • MICRO-ORGANISM
    Term used to describe any organism which cannot be seen in detail without a microscope.
  • MICROWAVE OVEN
    An oven which uses energy in the microwave frequency range. The microwave energy passes through most materials, but is absorbed by moisture; thus, microwave ovens work best on materials containing moisture.
  • MILDEW
    Common name for the white patches produced on plants and foods by the presence of a colony of certain types of fungi or moulds.
  • MILK
    Whole or fresh cows' milk has an average composition of 87.3% water, 3.75% fat, 3.0% casein, 0.53% lactalbumin, 0.8% mineral matter, 4.88% lactose or milk sugar.
  • MILLIGRAM (mg)
    A metric weight equal to one-thousandth of a gram.
  • MILLSTONES
    The heavy stones used for crushing the grain in a stone mill. Used in making 'stone ground' flour.
  • MINCEMEAT
    Combination filling of raisins, apples, spices and beef suet.
  • MINERAL OILS
    Those of the paraffin series. They are used for ancillary purposes. Example: lubricating oils, oils and greases for machines.
  • MIX
    1. A mixture of dry ingredients which requires the addition of wet ingredients to produce a batter or dough. 2. The actual operation of blending to form a dough or batter.
  • MIXER
    A machine for incorporating ingredients to form a dough or batter.
  • MIXING BOWL
    A round-bottomed bowl used for mixing ingredients. Some types are for hand use and others are made to fit various vertical mixers.
  • MIXING TOLERANCE
    The ability of a dough to withstand over- or undermixing without showing major changes in physical properties of the finished bakery food.
  • MIXING TOLERANCE INDEX (MTI)
    An indication of flour strength by the Brabender farinograph. An MTI of 20 indicates a strong flour for bread production. An MTI of 50 indicates flour weakness and lack of mixing and fermentation tolerance.
  • MOCHA
    A flavour combination of coffee and chocolate, but predominantly that of coffee.
  • MOISTURE
    The wetness or dampness of a substance.
  • MOISTURE CONTENT
    The amount of water in a system, such as dough, including the water in the ingredients, expressed as percent of total weight of the material. Example: flour contains 11 to 14% moisture (water).
  • MOLASSES
    A syrupy by-product of the beet or cane sugar industry which contains a large amount of sugar, together with minerals and other nutrients, such as vitamins. Used in bakery foods for its unique flavour and for colour.
  • MONOCALCIUM PHOSPHATE (CALCIUM ACID PHOSPHATE. (CAP) ACID CALCIUM PHOSPHATE)
    A chemical substance added to dough as a yeast nutrient and acidulant. It increases dough acidity. It is also one ingredient of most baking powders, reacting with baking soda when mixed in a batter system to produce carbon dioxide for leavening.
  • MONOGLYCERIDE
    Chemical compounds in which one fatty acid is bonded with one hydroxyl group of a glycerol molecule. Some monoglycerides are emulsifiers and are very functional in many food systems. (See Alpha Monoglyceride)
  • MONOSACCHARIDE
    A simple sugar which consists of one unit molecule with the general formula CnH2nOn where n = 3-4,5,6,7,8 or 9. Dextrose, fructose and galactose are typical monosaccharides.
  • MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE (MSG)
    Salt of glutamic acid. Monosodium glutamate is a white, crystalline odourless solid. Although possessing no flavour of its own, it excites the salivary secretions and, if mixed with other foods, it enhances the flavour from those foods.
  • MOULD
    1. Moulds are classified as fungi which usually grow as microscopic, multicellular, thread-like organisms, but may occasionally grow under certain conditions in unicellular form. To the unaided eye, these organisms will appear on the surfaces of food products and other organic material as mossy, varicoloured, spreading masses. These organisms tend to grow best when the humidity is high. 2. To form or shape a dough piece into its final form (mould).
  • MOULDER
    A machine for rolling or moulding the dough pieces into proper shape and length. After moulding, the dough pieces are panned or placed on dusted peel boards.
  • MOULDING
    The process of forming, giving shape.
  • MOULD INHIBITOR
    Compounds which, when added to a substance, especially food products, retard the growth of moulds and extend mould-free product shelf life.
  • MOULDS
    Pans or forms which will control shape of products during baking.
  • MUFFIN
    1. Small, light, chemically leavened quick breads baked in muffin pans. 2. English muffins are prepared from yeast-raised doughs and are baked on a griddle.
  • MULTI-GRAIN BREAD
    Breads containing, in addition to wheat flour, grains other than wheat; as many as 7 grains, either ground to flour fineness or in the whole or cracked form are commonly used. Grains include soya, flax, rye, triticale, barley, oats, maize, rice and sunflower.
  • NATURAL FLAVOUR
    Natural flavours are the Essential Oils, Oleoresin, Essence, or Extractive, Protein Hydrolysate, Distillate or any product of roasting, heating or enzymolysis, which contains the flavour constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud/ root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry/ eggs, dairy products, or fermentation products thereof, whose significant function in food is flavouring, rather than nutrition.
  • NON-DIASTATIC MALT
    Extract from sprouted grain, usually barley, in which the diastatic activity has been destroyed. Used in bakery foods (biscuits, crackers, health breads) for flavour and crust colour.
  • NO-TIME DOUGH
    Straight dough which, through the use of more fermenting agents and higher temperatures and usually with aid of more mechanical development in the form of mixing, has its fermentation period reduced from hours to a period of 0 to 20 minutes. It is processed into bread or other bakery food almost immediately after mixing. The short rest period after mixing and the final proof are the only fermentation phases in this process.
  • NUTMEG
    The seed of the fruit of Myristica fragrans. The arillus or envelope of the nutmeg is known as mace.
  • NUTRIENT
    The substances in a food from which a living body can derive energy and the necessary material for the synthesis of tissues. Yeast nutrients are those ingredients or materials which support yeast activity.
  • NUTRITION
    Nutrition is a field of science devoted to ascertaining the requirements of the body for food constituents, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and to the selection of foods, in kind and in quality, to meet these requirements.
  • OAT
    The common cereal plant Avena sativa, the seeds of which are used as food. Oat products are used in many bakery foods, including biscuits and multigrain.
  • OAT FLOUR
    Flour milled from groats (dehulled oats).
  • OIL-FIRED
    Ovens of various kinds and designs may be heated by the combustion of atomised fuel oil under pressure. The burners are so constructed that air and oil can be mixed in the desired proportions before reaching the burner, thus eliminating waste by ensuring complete combustion of the oil.
  • OIL SEEDS
    All seeds from which vegetable oils are freely pressed or extracted, such as cotton seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, soyabeans, rapeseeds, etc.
  • OILED DOUGH
    In some bakeries, instead of greasing or oil-spraying bread pans, the moulded pieces of dough are greased. This can be achieved in a number of simple ways. (There are a number of objections to this method, but in the opinion of many bakers these are outweighed by the advantage of saving time in greasing tins.)
  • OLD DOUGHS
    Yeast dough which has become over fermented due to excessive fermentation. This condition produces bread with a poor volume, a dark crumb colour, a sour taste, a coarse grain, a tough texture, and a light crust colour.
  • OLIVE OIL
    Oil extracted from the seed of the olive tree. Is high in monounsaturated fat; typical analysis is 77% monounsaturated fat; 9% polyunsaturated fat and 14% saturated fat.
  • OPEN TOP BREAD
    A loaf of bread baked without a lid on the pan, resulting in a rounded top crust.
  • ORGANOLEPTIC
    Term used by scientists to indicate the senses of taste and smell. Only four basic tastes exist, namely salty, sweet, bitter and sour. Flavours other than these are perceived by the combination of taste buds on the tongue and the olfactory nerves in the nose. Hence flavour is a combination of aromas and taste.
  • ORNAMENTS
    Decoration for cakes (such as pillars, cupids, figures etc, made from plastic, gum paste, etc).
  • OUNCE
    In the English system of weight. One ounce = 28.35 grams.
  • OVEN
    A heated chamber for baking or roasting food products. Several types are available.
  • OVEN HOOK
    A small hook used by an oven operator which enables him to quickly remove pans that would otherwise be hard to reach.
  • OVEN SPRING (OVEN KICK)
    The quick rise or expansion of a bakery product caused by the heat of the oven. The heat expands the gases within the product and also produces a vapour pressure from the moisture within the product, causing the cells in the dough to expand.
  • OVER AND UNDER SCALE
    Scale with an indicator showing how much the piece scaled is either over or under the desired weight. This type of scale is usually used for check weighing dough or batter coming from the divider or depositor.
  • OVERHEAD PROOFER (INTERMEDIATE)
    A system of trays designed for holding the pieces of dough for relaxing during the intermediate proof, immediately after scaling and rounding of the dough piece. The trays are conveyed through an enclosed cabinet to prevent drafts from reaching the dough. This stage requires about 7 to 15 minutes from the time the dough piece enters until it leaves the proofer. This time period is called the 'intermediate proof'. (See Intermediate Proofer)
  • OVERPROOF
    An excess amount of fermentation immediately prior to baking.
  • OXIDANTS
    Oxidising agents used to mature flour or doughs to improve loaf volume and crumb texture and grain. Example: potassium bromate, ascorbic acid, ADA.
  • OXIDATION
    The chemical process of the combination of a substance with oxygen. Use of oxidants is one of the many ways by which the handling properties of dough and/or the quality of bread can be improved. Oxidation of food fats eventually results in development of rancidity, which is accompanied by objectionable flavours and odours.
  • OXIDATIVE RANCIDITY
    Fats and oils are subject to a process of oxidation induced by air at room temperature. In this process, called auto-oxidation, oxygen reacts with a double bond in the unsaturated fatty acid. Initially peroxides are formed which, in turn, break down to ketones and aldehydes. The result of this oxidation is development of an objectionable taste and odour identified by the term 'rancid'. Oxidative rancidity is accelerated by high temperature and by certain metals, particularly copper and iron. It is retarded by antioxidants.
  • PADDLE BEATER
    The flat-ribbed beater used on vertical mixers for creaming or blending mixes.
  • PALETTE KNIFE
    Thin, flexible, round-ended, blunt-edged knife used for spreading creams, jams, royal icing, etc., and for scraping down the sides of bowls.
  • PALLET
    Platform of wood, metal or plastic on which containers (bags or other types of containers) are stacked for easy transport with forklift trucks.
  • PALM OIL
    Oil obtained from the fruit of the palm tree.
  • PALM NUT (KERNEL) OIL
    A white to yellowish edible fat that is obtained from palm kernels, especially of the African oil palm, Elaesis guineensis, or the American oil palm, E. oleifera, and resembles coconut oil. It is used chiefly for making coating fats and margarines.
  • PAN
    An open container made of metal or other materials, for baking dough or batter products.
  • PAN GREASE
    Any form of oil material spread on the inside surfaces of baking pans to facilitate the removal of the bakery food without damage. On bread pans it is customary to use an oil. For cake pans a more viscous grease is used.
  • PAN LINERS
    Usually made of treated paper and made to fit specific pans. Pan liners often eliminate greasing and give the finished product a clean, neat appearance.
  • PAN RACK
    A rack with shelves for holding baking sheets and/ or pans. The rack maybe either a stationary fixture or mobile in which case it is fitted with casters.
  • PAN WASHER
    Automatic machines designed to wash and clean pans and utensils with a detergent solution.
  • PANETTONI
    Rich fermented Italian bread prepared with high levels of fruit, eggs and butter.
  • PANNING
    Placing moulded dough into a pan so that the moulding seam is on the bottom and the ends of the dough reach the ends of the pans.
  • PANS (TINS)
    Various shaped metal containers used for baking.
  • PANZEROTTI
    A small Calzone, usually made with a pastry crust and deep-fried. Considered a snack or hors d'oevre item. Usually 80-110mm diameter crust before folding. (See Calzone)
  • PAPAIN
    A protein digesting enzyme obtained from the papaya fruit, Carica papaya. It acts as a tenderiser and in baking is used to soften gluten in flour doughs and to reduce dough mix time.
  • PAPER (SILICON-COATED)
    A type of paper that has been treated with a non-absorbing coating. It is often used in baking cakes, macaroons, or quite sticky mixtures.
  • PARTS PER MILLION (PPM)
    The proportions stated in terms of the number of parts of an ingredient contained in one million parts of a product. Oxidants are usually quoted as parts per million of flour.
  • PASTA
    Generic term for such foods as macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, etc., made from durum flour, or semolina, and water or occasionally with flour, water, egg and milk, shaped through plates, partially dried in hot air, then completely dried more slowly at a lower temperature.
  • PASTE
    Generic title for many types of mixes including almond, choux, Danish, gum, macaroon, puff, short and sweet pastries.
  • PASTEURISATION
    Process named after its inventor, Louis Pasteur, by which foods are heat-treated to destroy or to retard the development of microbial life. The process for pasteurisation is to heat foods to a temperature of 68°C for 30 minutes and to cool down to below 5°C.
  • PASTEURISE
    Means heat treatment to such an extent that all pathogenic and the bulk of micro-organisms are destroyed without marked changes in the composition and taste of the product and which yields a negative phosphatase result.
  • PASTRY
    Sweet baked goods made with paste-like dough (as cakes, pies, or tarts).
  • PEACH
    The sweet juicy edible fruit of the peach tree which is widely used as a fresh or cooked fruit, in preserves or dried.
  • PEAK
    This refers to a stage in the mixing of a foam, such as for angel food cake or meringue. A small amount of an egg white and sugar foam is removed from the mass of foam, which leaves a pointed tip or peak where the part is removed. When this peak is short and stiff, it is called a dry peak. When the peak is long, soft and tends to bend over, it is called a wet peak.
  • PEAKED CAKE
    A cake which is thick at the centre and slopes downward toward the edges. This condition is usually associated with a very soft batter and/or a very hot oven. A very high egg content may also contribute to this phenomenon, particularly in fairy cakes.
  • PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA)
    A legume also known as earth nut, groundnut, monkey nut or arachis nut.
  • PEANUT BUTTER
    A paste produced by grinding roasted ground peanuts. Small amounts of hydrogenated oils are often added to prevent the peanut oil from separating from the mass. Salt & sugar are added for taste.
  • PEANUT OIL
    The oil from the peanut.
  • PECAN NUTS
    Seeds of a North American tree, Carya illinoensis. The nuts are not very large, and are almost cylindrical in shape with a slight taper at either end. Pecan nuts are very popular for their distinct taste, particularly when lightly roasted. Used in biscuits and as a sweet goods topping.
  • PECTIN
    A material commonly occurring in fruits. Capable of forming a gel and in the presence of sugar, will form jellies from fruit juices. Pectins are marketed in solution and in dry form and are used to thicken fruit fillings, toppings, and fruit glazes.
  • PEEL
    1. The long-handled, flat, wooden shovel-like tool used by a baker to place dough pieces directly on the oven hearth for baking and for removal of the baked product from the oven. Steel peel heads are used occasionally and are useful if oven-bottom bread is baked in a too hot oven, thus burning and sticking to the oven sale. These steel peel heads enable the bread to be removed from the oven without appreciable damage. Peel handles are usually made of ash, teak or mahogany. 2.The whole of the peel (outer coating) of oranges, lemons, bananas/ and other fruits.
  • PEEL OVEN
    A baking chamber with a stationary baking surface or floor. The loading or unloading of such an oven is generally accomplished with a peel - a long-handled flat scoop. The deck oven is similar except that the chamber is shallower and usually does not require a peel for loading or unloading.
  • PEELING
    1. The act of using a peel, or long wooden spatula, to insert dough pieces into the baking chamber or to remove the baked loaves. 2. To remove the outer skin of fruits or tubers.
  • PERCENT EXTRACTION
    Refers to the percent of flour made from a given weight of wheat. The weight of flour divided by the weight of wheat is expressed in terms of percent extraction.
  • PERCENTAGE
    Numbers represented in terms of parts per hundred.
  • PERISHABLE
    Subject to speedy decay or destruction by bacterial or enzymatic action.
  • PERMEABLE
    Capable of being penetrated by a specified substance such as water solvents, or gases.
  • PERFECTOR
    A machine used in the continuous manufacture of edible fats and margarines in which the fats maybe emulsified and conditioned ready for packaging.
  • PEROXIDE VALUE
    A measure of reactive oxygen in a fat or oil. Considered an indicator of the extent that a fat has already reacted to oxygen. During oxidation, the peroxide value increases slowly during an induction period, then rapidly reaches a peak. After the peak, peroxide value decreases. A high peroxide value indicates advanced oxidation, but a low peroxide value may not mean freedom from oxidation.
  • PETITS FOURS
    The name adopted for many kinds of small fancy cakes. The actual meaning is: little oven-baked goods.
  • pH
    The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution or mixture. A measure of acidity or alkalinity: acids have a pH of less than 7, alkaline above 7, and neutral solutions have a pH of 7. This determination is used in fermenting doughs to determine amount and rate of fermentation. Also is used in checking finished products since top quality bakery foods generally have specific ranges of pH.
  • PIE (SAVOURY)
    A savoury item consisting of a pie paste or pastry bottom, a filling of different meats, cheese, or vegetables, covered with pastry topping.
  • PIE (SWEET)
    A dessert item consisting of a pastry bottom, a filling of fruit or cream, and meringue, whipped cream or a pastry topping.
  • PlE PIN
    A round stick with the diameter of a thick broom handle and 35 to 50mm long. It is used for sheeting small pieces of dough by rolling the pin with the palm of the hand over the dough surface, alternately in different directions.
  • PIE PRESS
    Machine used to stamp or press pie dough to form the proper shaped bottom crust in a pie tin.
  • PIE RIMMER
    A mechanical device for trimming the excess dough from the edge of the pie and elevating the edge for holding soft fillings.
  • PIE ROLLER
    A machine for mechanically rolling the pieces of pie dough into a sheet to fit the pie tin.
  • PIE TIN
    A round shallow pan used for shaping and baking pies.
  • PIECES
    The scaled units of dough before they are made up into bread.
  • PIN
    A rolling pin of the usual design for rolling a piece of dough uniformly to the desired thickness.
  • PINEAPPLE
    Fruit of a tropical plant. It is widely used either after being cut into cubes and preserved in syrup, or in a crystallised form for the flavouring and decoration of fancy cakes and pastries.
  • PIPING
    The decoration of cakes by forcing royal icing or other suitable material through plain or fancy shaped tubes to give form to the string of sugar, etc. being extruded. According to the form the decoration takes, it maybe described as lace, net, figure, or line piping.
  • PIPING PAPER
    A stout, non-greasy paper for use with piping tubes.
  • PISTACHIO NUTS
    A small, thin-shelled nut of the Pistacia vera tree, of delicious, but delicate flavour. Its principal value in baking is its light yellowish green colour, hence its decorative use on cakes.
  • PITA (POCKET BREAD)
    A lean bread dough which after a short fermentation, is flattened into an oval shape and baked on the surface of a very hot oven (260-300°C), for a short time. Dough piece expands rapidly creating a large cavity (pocket, which collapses after removal from oven. Pocket is filled with fillings and eaten as a sandwich. Pita bread weights range from 60 to 180 grams.
  • PLASTICITY
    1. The consistency or feel of shortening. 2. The property of a material which permits it to be easily formed or shaped. For example, a plastic shortening is pliable but is neither hard and brittle nor soft and oily at room temperature. Also used to describe dough condition.
  • PLATFORM SCALES
    Large scales in which the scale pan takes the form of a low, flat platform so that heavy articles may be easily weighed in bulk. Example: sacks of flour.
  • PLIABLE DOUGH
    A dough which is easy to handle, work, shape and mould.
  • PNEUMATIC
    Operated or moved by air.
  • POCKET
    On a divider, an adjustable cavity into which the dough is forced and measured by volume to control the scaling weight of the individual dough pieces.
  • POLY
    A contraction for polyethylene, a packaging film.
  • POLYESTER FILM
    Polyester film, or polyethylene terephthalate, is a thermal plastic film of high strength, transparency, abrasion, resistance, wide temperature resistance and moderate permeability. It is generally laminated to less costly materials for body, sealability or other desired properties.
  • POLYSORBATE 60 (POLYOXYETHYLENE [201 SORBlTANMONOSTEARATE) (TWEEN 60)
    A hydrophilic emulsifier which is used in cakes for increased volume and fine grain and in icings and confectionery for lightness. It is frequently used in combination with sorbitan mono-stearate or mono and diglycerides. Commonly known as 'TWEEN'. Function is aeration. Also used as a bread crumb softener and dough strengthener, usually in combination with monoglycerides. Formed by the addition of polymerisation reaction of ethylene oxide with any remaining free hydroxyl groups on a sorbitan fatty ester.
  • POPPYSEED
    The seed of the poppy (genus Papaver), used as a topping and for fillings in bakery foods.
  • POROSITY
    The openness of the cells in bakery foods. Porosity is desired in English muffins, but not in most bakery foods.
  • PORTUGUESE BREAD
    A round type of bread (no baking pan) having a thick, crisp crust which has a crack across the middle and is covered with flour.
  • PORTUGUESE ROLL
    An oblong type of roll with a thin crispy crust, a lovely crack down the centre and twisted at both ends. Lightly dusted with flour on top.
  • POTASSIUM BROMATE (KBr03)
    A chemical substance comprised of potassium bromine and oxygen that is used as an oxidising agent in the baking industry to form intermolecular bonds between flour proteins in a dough. Potassium bromate is a slow-acting oxidising agent, being activated in a dough by heat (such as in the proofer or oven) and by acid conditions as developed in dough fermentation.
  • POTASSIUM CHLORIDE
    A partial replacement for sodium chloride (salt) for reduction of sodium in bakery foods. At levels greater than 1%, flour basis, potassium chloride may produce a bitter taste in bakery food.
  • POTATO
    Starchy tuberous root of the herb Solanum tuberosum.
  • POTATO FLOUR
    Flour from dried potatoes from which the outer skin has been removed.
  • POUND
    The unit of weight in the English system. One pound is equal to 453.59 grams.
  • POUND CAKE
    A rich cake originally made from equal amounts (pounds) of flour, butter, sugar and fresh eggs. Today many pound cakes are made with a higher proportion of sugar and less fat and eggs. These cakes are generally leavened with baking powder.
  • POWDERED SUGAR
    Cane or beet sugar ground to powder fineness. Graded from 4x to 12x, from coarser to finer. Contains 3% maize starch and sometimes 1% tricalcium phosphate to prevent lumping.
  • PPM
    Abbreviation for parts per million.
  • PRECIPITATE
    The solid matter which separates from a liquid under certain conditions, accumulating in the bottom of the vessel.
  • PREMIX
    A preblend of minor ingredients used to improve scaling accuracy. Many premix mixes require only the addition of flour, water and yeast to produce a complete dough.
  • PRESERVATIVES
    Substances added to foods to prevent or delay spoilage. Spoilage may occur through chemical action (such as shortening becoming rancid), or through microbial activity, such as mould growth or fermentation by bacteria or yeast.
  • PRESS OUT
    Term used in the bakery meaning to stamp out or cut into smaller units by means of a machine called a press (bun or roll divider). Generally designed to cut a piece of dough into 6, 12, 24 or 36 units.
  • PRESSURE DEPOSITOR
    A device to extrude a uniform quantity of doughnut or cake batter in a given time. Depending on the product, it is designed to deposit the batter directly into the hot frying fat or into a baking pan.
  • PRETZEL
    A uniquely shaped snack item prepared from a lean, stiff dough that is dipped in a hot lye (caustic) solution prior to baking. It is frequently topped with coarse salt.
  • PROOF
    In relation to fermented doughs, this term is used to indicate the degree of aeration imparted by the action of yeast before the goods are baked. The final fermentation period between make-up and baking or frying of yeast-raised product. Also referred to as 'rise time,' because it is during this period that the yeast-leavened product 'rises.'
  • PROOF, FULL
    (See Full Proof)
  • PROOF BOX
    A heated and humidity controlled chamber used in proofing yeast-leavened doughs. The temperature of this chamber is usually maintained within a narrow range 36 - 38°C for bread and buns and the humidity (80%) is controlled, usually by steam injection, to prevent drying (crusting) of the doughs.
  • PROOFING BOARDS
    Wooden boards (some plastic or fibreglass) used to support moulded dough pieces for product transfer and proofing. Mealie Meal and / or Cornflour is generally used to coat the board lightly for easier transfer of product from the board to the oven hearth (Baking surface).
  • PROOFING PERIOD, FINAL
    The time during which dough rises between moulding and baking.
  • PROPIONATE
    Salts of propionic acid (acid or sodium). Used as preservatives in baking foods to retard mould development.
  • PROPIONIC ACID
    It is a colourless, fatty acid, soluble in water and possessing an astringent odour similar to that of acetic acid. The sodium and calcium salts of propionic acid - the propionates - are used as fungistats in foodstuffs (they retard mould growth).
  • PROPYLENE GLYCOL MONOSTEARATE (PGMS)
    A propylene glycol ester which acts as an emulsifier and is used as a crystal stabiliser in cake shortening and whipped topping. It is also used in oils and shortenings to increase aeration in cake batters, icings and toppings. Comprised of one propylene glycol unit esterified with one fatty acid. Is an effective emulsifier for cake and bread products.
  • PROTEASE
    An enzyme (biological catalyst) that brings about a hydrolysis of proteins. In the baking industry, this enzyme from cereal, bacterial or fungal sources is used to improve the handling properties of dough to produce more mellow, pliable doughs. Also used to reduce mixing requirements in some dough processes.
  • PROTECTED ACTIVE DRY YEAST (PADY)
    Has longer shelf life than active dry yeast because: 1) contains antioxidant BHA or BHT to protect from oxidation oxygen and 2) is dried to a lower moisture content (5 to 6%) to slow down metabolic processes.
  • PROTEIN
    Protein is composed of amino acids. The wheat protein is important in baking for its functional and nutritional properties. It is constituents of the wheat protein (gliadin and glutenin) which form gluten when flour is mixed with water and kneaded. The gluten is instrumental in determining the cell structure of most bakery foods. (See Gluten)
  • PUFF PASTE
    A paste made of dough layered with hard butter or pastry margarine and given sufficient 'folds' to form hundreds of alternating layers of dough and fats. Treated properly, puff paste will rise very high in the oven and the layered or laminated structure remains intact when the pastry is sliced.
  • PUFF PASTRY MARGARINE (PASTRY MARGARINE)
    A firm, waxy appearing margarine which contains little or no salt, very little water and which has a tough plastic quality enabling it to withstand the rolling and folding operations involved in the manufacture of puff paste without being absorbed by the dough.
  • PUMPERNICKEL
    Pumpernickel is bread made with coarsely ground whole rye meal. Pumpernickel breads prepared with no-wheat flour require the use of a 'sour' or sour dough for leavening. The resultant bread is quite dense.
  • PYROMETER
    A mechanical, optical or electrical instrument used for measuring high temperatures such as those in a baking oven.
  • QUALITATIVE
    Classification with regard only to the types of substance in a material without consideration of quantity.
  • QUANTITATIVE
    The amount of a substance present in a particular material.
  • QUART
    Measure of liquid capacity equal to one fourth of a gallon, two pints, 32 fluid ounces or 0.946 litres.
  • QUICHE
    An open savoury tart with a rich custard filling to which are added bacon, onion, cheese, mince, spinach, ham, salami, polony, viennas (chopped), chicken, or a combination of any of these.
  • QUICK BREADS
    Bread-like sweet products baked from chemically leavened batter in loaf pans, having a crumbly texture.
  • QUICK OATS
    Quick-cooking oats are made by cutting the berry into several pieces through a steel cutting process, then rolling the segments quite thin. Requires less cooking time than rolled oats.
  • QUINOA
    A pigweed (Chenopodium quinoa) grown as a cereal in Peru for centuries. Able to grow on poor soils with little moisture and at high altitudes. High in protein (14% average). Some varieties have a bitter taste, due to high saponin content.
  • RACK
    1. A mobile unit containing several shelves used for holding, proofing, baking or storing of products during processing or in finished form. 2. To rack a bakery product is to place it on a rack.
  • RACK COOLER
    A product cooler that is tray tiered (one above another) in a design that allows the baked product to decrease in temperature (cool) sufficiently for packaging.
  • RACK OVEN
    A baking chamber equipped with a removable rack which allows loading and unloading of the bakery product outside the baking chamber. The rack rotates in the oven during the baking process.
  • RADIATION
    In general, the emission of energy in a wave motion, in rays or in electrically charged particles from a source. A method of transmitting infra-red heat from a hotter to a colder body. This heat can be transmitted in a vacuum as well as through the atmosphere.
  • RAGGED CRUMB
    When bread is made correctly, fermented properly and baked perfectly, it can be sliced cleanly. Most complaints about poor cutting qualities can be traced to the use of blades that are out of condition. These drag or rag the crumb, causing the slices to appear untidy and uneven.
  • RAISIN
    Dried sweet fruits of the genus Vitis (grapes). Either dark (natural colour) or bleached.
  • RANCIDITY
    A condition resulting from chemical changes, primarily through oxidation brought about by enzymes, bacteria or the presence of light and air. These changes cause the breaking down of the fatty acids at their double bonds and the forming of volatile aldehydes and similar compounds.
  • RAPESEED
    A small round dark seed grown for its high oil content. Because of its size and uniformity it is commonly used in displacement devices for measuring volume (size) of bakery foods. (See Canola Oil)
  • RATIO
    The quantity of one material in relation to another. For example 2:1 means two parts of one material for every one part of the second.
  • RAW MATERIALS
    General term for all the materials used in the manufacture of a product, such as ingredients in a bakery food.
  • RECIPE (FORMULA)
    A list of ingredients and the quantity of each for making a bakery food.
  • RECIPE (FORMULA) BALANCING
    The art of combining ingredients in the proper quantities or proportions to yield a recipe for a bakery food having the desired attributes and qualities.
  • RECIPROCATING SLICER
    Bread slicing equipment which has fixed slicing blades in a frame that travels in an up and down motion. Blades cannot be adjusted for various slice thickness.
  • RECOVERY TIME
    The time that is allowed to elapse between each of the main dough handling operations in bread making to enable yeast to partially fill the dough with gas. The gluten relaxes during this time, enabling the piece of dough to be manipulated and moulded easily.
  • REDUCING AGENT
    With reference to the chemistry of flour and dough, a chemical substance which breaks (cleaves) the disulphide bonds in flour proteins, resulting in a more extensible, pliable dough (when not used in excess). Examples: L-cysteine, sodium metabisulphite.
  • REDUCING SUGAR
    A sugar capable of chemically reducing copper in an alkaline solution. Dextrose is a reducing sugar, as is fructose. The sugars combine with nitrogen compounds at elevated temperatures to produce a 'browning' (Maillard) reaction. This 'browning' reaction is useful in producing a brown crust on baked foods, in the production of caramel colour and in the production of certain heat-related flavours.
  • REDUCTION
    In flour and dough chemistry, the breaking of disulphide bonds in flour protein by the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulphur atom at the cleavage points. The dough modified in this manner is more fluid and pliable.
  • REFRIGERANTS
    Substances used to induce refrigeration. Example: solidified carbon dioxide, ice and salt, freon etc.
  • REFRIGERATION
    1. The principle of the refrigerator is based upon the cooling which is produced by causing volatile liquids to assume the vaporous state. This change of state involves the absorption of heat which is abstracted from the atmosphere of the enclosed, insulated, refrigeration cabinet. 2. Maintaining a system at a cooler than normal temperature to retard or halt a process such as fermentation, spoilage, etc.
  • REFRIGERATOR
    A cabinet or room for keeping food or other articles cool, normally at 1-2°C.
  • RELATIVE HUMIDITY
    The ratio between the amount of water vapour actually in the air at a given temperature and pressure, and the greatest amount of water vapour the air could hold at that same temperature and pressure expressed as a percentage, or in terms of wet bulb vs. dry bulb temperature in the atmosphere in the cabinet. Relative humidity in proofing cabinets should be high to prevent crusting of dough pieces through surface evaporation.
  • RENDERED FATS
    Those converted or melted to oil by direct heat or by steam, clarified by filtration and allowed to set.
  • RESIDUAL SUGARS
    In baking, this refers to the sugars which remain in the bakery food after the baking process is completed. Residual sugars add to the sweetness, texture and colour properties of the finished loaf.
  • RESPONSE
    Reaction of dough to a known and specific stimulus, substance or set of conditions, usually determined by baking it in comparison with a control.
  • REST PERIOD
    In the baking industry, this term refers to the time given the dough to recover after mechanical or physical handling. (See Recovery Time)
  • RETARDED DOUGH
    A dough, usually a sweet yeast dough, that is made up in its finished form, placed on pans and then put into a refrigerator to retard fermentation until such time as it is needed. It is then taken from the refrigerator, warmed to room temperature, proofed and baked. Also, may be retarded in bulk form ( 47 kilogram pieces) until needed, then divided, shaped, proofed and baked.
  • RETARDED FERMENTATION
    Retarding yeast action by mixing doughs at lower temperatures than usual. This term also used for doughs which have been fermented and then refrigerated, either in bulk or after having been made up into finished form. (See Retarded Dough)
  • RETARDER
    Bakers' term for refrigerator, the reason being that the low temperature (0-3°C) will retard (slow down) yeast activity in doughs. A room for storing retarded doughs.
  • RETROGRADATION
    The crystallisation of starch during storage of products containing gelatinised starch. The retrogradation of amylopectin in bread is believed to be involved in staling or firming of bread during storage.
  • REVOLVING OR RACK OVEN
    The type in which the shelves or trays on a trolley revolve around a horizontal axis.
  • REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE (RPM)
    The number of times a device revolves 3600 on an axis each minute. Example: mixer arm revolves x times per minute.
  • RHIZOPUS
    A genus of mould which will grow on bread and other bakery products. One of the most common in the bakery is Rhizopus nigricans.
  • RICE
    Seeds of the Oryza sativa, an important cereal which forms the staple article of food of many Eastern nations.
  • RICE FLOUR
    Finely milled rice used principally as a dusting medium for fermenting doughs. It does not readily cling to the dough or take up moisture from it, hence it is very effective as a preventative against the sticking of dough on tables. It is now also used in microwavable products.
  • RICH DOUGH
    One that contains more than the average of such enriching ingredients as shortening, eggs and sugar.
  • RIPE DOUGH (DEVELOPED DOUGH)
    Term for a dough ready for scaling, having received a period of fermentation sufficiently protracted and/or mechanical development sufficient to enable it to reach its optimum condition for processing.
  • RIPENING (DOUGH)
    The development, during fermentation, of proper physical and chemical properties of dough required for bread making.
  • RISE
    In the baking industry this term refers to the height (volume) a dough attains in a given fermentation time.
  • ROLL
    Small bread made from yeast-leavened dough. Sometimes called buns; maybe hard or soft crusted. Less than 70 g weight.
  • ROLL-IN MARGARINE
    Specially processed margarine for applying between layers of sheeted dough for laminating in such products as croissants and Danish pastry. Imparts a flaky character to product.
  • ROLLED CHOCOLATE
    Long thin rolls of chocolate used decoratively on cakes and similar products.
  • ROLLED OATS
    Whole oat berries (dehulled) or 'groats' that have been passed through rollers to flatten the groat.
  • ROLLING PIN
    Smooth-surfaced cylindrical-shaped wooden tool for flattening (sheeting out) dough pieces.
  • ROPE
    A term applied in the baking industry to the development of long, stringy, viscous threads in baked products caused by bacteria of the Bacillus mesentericus group.
  • ROPE INHIBITORS
    Compounds which, when added to bakery foods, retard the development of rope.
  • ROSETTES
    1. Decorating, resembling small roses or rose-like markings. 2. Round shaped rolls which have been cut to resemble a rose.
  • ROTARY BISCUIT
    A biscuit produced from a dough which is pliable and is forced into an engraved mould, extracted onto a canvas belt and fed into a conveyorised oven.
  • ROTARY OVEN
    Oven having a round hearth that revolves on a horizontal plane around a vertical axle at the centre.
  • ROUGHAGE
    In foods, the fibrous materials of cereals, fruits, etc, which, although not nutrients, are useful in the prevention and management of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. They are also of value in preventing diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Examples: wheat bran, corn bran, rice bran, soya bran and oat bran.
  • ROUNDER
    A machine so constructed that by a rotary motion the dough after scaling is smoothed and rounded into a somewhat spherical shape.
  • ROUNDING
    Shaping of dough pieces into balls to seal, to give consistently round shapes for easier handling and to prevent bleeding and escape of gas.
  • ROUND TOP BREAD (OPEN TOP BREAD)
    A loaf of bread baked without a lid on the pan, resulting in a rounded top crust.
  • ROYAL ICING
    Decorative frosting of cooked sugar and egg whites which dries very hard.
  • RYE
    The cereal, Secale cereal L. The flour and meal from rye are used for making many types of rye bread.
  • RYE BREAD
    Bread made from a blend of rye flour and!or rye meal and wheat flour. Many varieties are determined by percent and type of rye flour in the formula.
  • RYE FLOUR
    Flour produced by the milling of rye grain. Various types of flour produced through various degrees of purification (removal of outer bran coating) and degree of grinding. Usually available as light, medium or dark rye flour.
  • SACCHARIDES
    Any of a series of compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in which the atoms of the latter two elements are in the ratio of 2:1, especially those containing the group C6H10O5 such as sugars and starches.
  • SACCHARIFICATION
    Changing into sugar, as the changing of starch into maltose and dextrin by boiling with weak acids or through enzymatic action.
  • SACCHARIFY
    To convert starches into sugar by treatment with acids and/or enzymes.
  • SACCHARIN
    A non-nutritive synthetic sweetener, 300 to 400 times sweeter than sucrose. Has a bitter aftertaste and has a stability problem in baked foods. Used as a sweetener in low kilojoule foods such as jam, desserts and beverages.
  • SAFFRON
    Yellow colouring and flavouring material from the dried stigmas of the flower of the Crocus sativus. The material is used for colouring and flavouring bakery foods.
  • SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE) (NaCl)
    A seasoning in crystalline form consisting of sodium chloride (at least 97.5%). Available in various particle sizes (coarse, flake, fine) and shapes (flake or cube). Used in bakery foods for flavour, enhancement of other flavours and for fermentation control. High salt levels in dough retard yeast fermentation.
  • SANDING
    A term used for the methods of applying a layer of sugar crystals to baked goods, such as biscuits, pastries, etc.
  • SANDWICH
    Two or more slices of bread with meat, cheese or other fillings placed between them. The Fourth Earl of Sandwich, John Montagu, is credited with the invention.
  • SANDWICH BISCUIT
    A baked food consisting of a cream filling sandwiched between two similar biscuits.
  • SANDWICH BREAD
    Loaf of bread which is rectangular in shape with a flat top and square end appearance. It is baked in a lidded pan to control the shape,
  • SAVOURY
    Attractive to the sense of taste, or smell, salty or spicy but not sweet - a savoury dish as in Quiche Lorraine can be served as a snack or as hors d'oeuvre.
  • SCALE
    Balance device used for weighing specified quantities of materials,
  • SCALING
    1. A term used in the baking industry referring to the process of measuring or dividing a large unit, such as a dough, into smaller portions, each portion to produce one baked unit. 2. Dividing batter or dough according to unit weight.
  • SCALING LOSS
    The difference between the actual yield from a batch of dough before fermentation and what the yield should have been, according to total batch weight.
  • SCHEDULE
    Bakeshop form designating amount and types of goods to be made and the time schedule for manufacture of these products.
  • SCONE
    A quick bread made of a baking powder dough, sometimes enriched with eggs, sugar and currants, then cut into various shapes and baked in an oven.
  • SCOOP
    A hollow shovel or ladle, usually rounded and fitted with a handle, to enable dry materials to be transferred easily - as when taking a quantity from bulk supplies and transferring to a scale pan.
  • SCRAP
    Technical term used for dough or product which is left after make-up of completed units. This scrap product is worked (incorporated) into later batches to avoid waste, This is done in such a way that it is completely incorporated and has no adverse effect on the quality of the bakery food.
  • SCRATCH/MIX
    One of the two primary types of instate and retail bakery operations. Baked goods are made from individually weighed ingredients (scratch) or premixes containing all necessary ingredients except for yeast and liquids,
  • SCREENS
    Fine-wiremesh, rectangular screens on which yeast raised doughnuts etc are proofed. Proofed pieces are placed in the fryer on the screens.
  • SEAM
    In bread, it is the end of the sheeted dough piece which remains exposed after moulding. The seam extends the entire length of the load and should be placed on the bottom side when dough is placed in pan. A tight seam is desired to eliminate any chance of opening or bursting during baking.
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